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United States: Closed and Transitional Facilities

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Apollo Plant
Apollo, Pennsylvania
1957-1978
FUNCTION: Formerly converted uranium hexafluoride to naval reactor fuel, manufactured plutonium fuel rod elements for the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) reactor at the Hanford Reservation and (as of November 30, 1961) fabricated plutonium-beryllium neutron sources.
FORMER CONTRACTORS: Nuclear Materials and Equipment Corporation (NUMEC), 1957-1967; Atlantic Richfield Co., 1967-1971; Babcock and Wilcox, 1971-1978
Courtesy: Stephen I. Schwartz, Brookings Institution, 1775 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, D.C. 20036-2188, Telephone (202) 797-6030 - Facsimile (202) 797-6003, Email: sschwartz@brook.edu

Buffalo Works
Buffalo, New York
1944-1957
SIZE: 191 acres (0.3 square miles)
FUNCTION: Former site for weapon production, research and development engineering and testing (functions transferred to South Albuquerque Works).
FORMER CONTRACTOR: ACF Industries, Inc. (formerly American Car & Foundry, Inc.)
Courtesy: Stephen I. Schwartz, Brookings Institution, 1775 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, D.C. 20036-2188, Telephone (202) 797-6030 - Facsimile (202) 797-6003, Email: sschwartz@brook.edu

Burlington AEC (Atomic Energy Commission) Plant Burlington, Iowa
1947-1975
ESTABLISHED: Began producing high-explosive (HE) components in 1948; first assembly (of a Mk-4 bomb) occurred in 1949.
FUNCTION: Former site for nuclear weapon fabrication and final assembly (functions transferred to Pantex Plant).
FORMER CONTRACTORS: Ordnance Corps, U.S. Army, 1947-1963; Mason & Hanger-Silas Mason Co., 1963-1975
Courtesy: Stephen I. Schwartz, Brookings Institution, 1775 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, D.C. 20036-2188, Telephone (202) 797-6030 - Facsimile (202) 797-6003, Email: sschwartz@brook.edu

Clarksville Modification Center
Clarksville, Tennessee
1960-September 1965
FUNCTION: Warhead component testing and modification (functions transferred to Pantex Plant).
FORMER CONTRACTOR: Mason & Hanger-Silas Mason Co., Inc.
Courtesy: Stephen I. Schwartz, Brookings Institution, 1775 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, D.C. 20036-2188, Telephone (202) 797-6030 - Facsimile (202) 797-6003, Email: sschwartz@brook.edu

Dana Heavy Water Plant
Newport, Indiana
April 1952-May 24, 1957 (on standby until July 29, 1959)
FUNCTION: Produced heavy water (deuterium) used for moderating and cooling production reactors and as a fusion source in early hydrogen bombs.
FORMER CONTRACTOR: Designed and built by the Girdler Corporation (under the direction of E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company) and operated by E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company
Courtesy: Stephen I. Schwartz, Brookings Institution, 1775 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, D.C. 20036-2188, Telephone (202) 797-6030 - Facsimile (202) 797-6003, Email: sschwartz@brook.edu

Destrehan Street Plant
St. Louis, Missouri
1943-June 1958
SIZE: 45 acres
FUNCTION: Supplied uranium "feed materials" to facilities producing fissionable materials. Currently undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D&D).
FORMER CONTRACTOR: Mallinckrodt Chemical Works
Courtesy: Stephen I. Schwartz, Brookings Institution, 1775 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, D.C. 20036-2188, Telephone (202) 797-6030 - Facsimile (202) 797-6003, Email: sschwartz@brook.edu

Fernald Environmental Management Project
Fernald, Ohio, 17 miles northwest of Cincinnati
1953-1991 (decomtamination and demolition continued until 2007)
ESTABLISHED: Construction began in 1951 and was completed in May 1954; production operations began in 1953 and ceased in 1989.
SIZE: 1,050 acres (1.6 square miles); 136 acres of process buildings
BUDGET: $269.7 million [not including DOE's Ohio Field Office] (100 percent defense-related) (1997)
EMPLOYEES: 55 [federal]; 1,989 [contractor] (as of 9/30/97)
FUNCTION: Formerly converted various forms of uranium into uranium metal for use as target and fuel elements in DOE production reactors. Processed depleted uranium for use in artillery shells and tank armor. Currently undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D&D).
RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS ON-SITE: 3,373 metric tons of depleted uranium and 2,170 metric tons of low-enriched uranium
FORMER CONTRACTORS: Fluor Daniel (known until September 1996 as Fluor Daniel Environmental Restoration Management Corp. [FERMCO]), a subsidiary of Fluor Corp. National Lead Company of Ohio (NLO, a subsidiary of NL Industries, Inc.); 1951-1985; Westinghouse Materials Co. of Ohio, 1986-1992
Courtesy: Stephen I. Schwartz, Brookings Institution, 1775 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, D.C. 20036-2188, Telephone (202) 797-6030 - Facsimile (202) 797-6003, Email: sschwartz@brook.edu

Hanford Reservation
Richland, Washington
1943-1991 (large-scale environmental clean-up currently overseen by the DOE)
ESTABLISHED: Site selected on February 8, 1943 (code name Site W); reactor operations began in September, 1944. Production of plutonium-239 ceased in 1988.
SIZE: 360,000 acres (562.5 square miles)
BUDGET: $1,626.3 million [including Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and DOE's Richland Operations Office] (87.5 percent defense-related) (1997)
EMPLOYEES: 170 [federal]; 11,137 [contractor] (as of 9/30/97)
FUNCTION: Formerly produced 54.5 metric tons plutonium-239 and 13 kilograms of tritium for nuclear weapons, as well as 12.9 metric tons of reactor-grade plutonium. Built and tested advanced reactor concepts. Current work focuses on high-level waste management and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). Facilities include nine reactors, five reprocessing plants, 177 high-level waste underground storage tanks built between 1943 and 1976 and a shallow trench disposal site for dismantled submarine reactor compartments.
RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS ON-SITE: 11.0 metric tons of plutonium-239 (1.7 metric tons declared excess by President Clinton on March 1, 1995) and 0.6 metric tons of uranium-235 (0.5 metric tons declared excess by President Clinton on March 1, 1995)
CONTRACTORS: Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc.; Lockheed Martin Hanford Corp.; Rust Federal Services; Duke Engineering and Services Inc.; B & W Hanford company; Numatec Hanford Corp.; BNFL, Inc.; Bechtel Hanford Inc.; DynCorp Tri-City Services Inc.; GTS Duratek; Science Applications International Corp. (SAIC); Lockheed Martin Advanced Environmental Systems; M4 Environmental L.P.; Nukem Nuclear Technologies; Los Alamos Technical Associates Inc; AEA Technology; OHM Remediation Services Corporation; Battelle Memorial Institute [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
FORMER CONTRACTORS: Built and operated by E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, 1943-1946; Garrett Corporation, 1943-1946; General Electric Company, 1946-1964; General Electric Company [Hanford Laboratories, Hanford Atomic Products Operation], 1946-1964; Isochem Inc. (a joint venture of the U.S. Rubber Corp. and Martin-Marietta Corp.), 1965-1967; United Nuclear, Inc. (formerly Douglas United Nuclear, Inc.), 1964-1977; Atlantic Richfield Hanford Co., 1967-1976; Rockwell Hanford Operations, 1977-1987; Westinghouse Hanford Co., 1987-1996; ICF Kaiser Hanford Co., 1987-1996; UNC Nuclear Industries, 1987-1996; Bechtel Hanford Inc., 1987-1996
Courtesy: Stephen I. Schwartz, Brookings Institution, 1775 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, D.C. 20036-2188, Telephone (202) 797-6030 - Facsimile (202) 797-6003, Email: sschwartz@brook.edu

Medina Modification Center
San Antonio, Texas
Late 1958-July 1966 FUNCTION: Warhead component testing and modification, weapon repairs and retirements (functions transferred to Pantex Plant).
FORMER CONTRACTOR: Mason and Hanger-Silas Mason Co., Inc.
Courtesy: Stephen I. Schwartz, Brookings Institution, 1775 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, D.C. 20036-2188, Telephone (202) 797-6030 - Facsimile (202) 797-6003, Email: sschwartz@brook.edu

Mound Laboratory
Miamisburg, Ohio
1947-present
ESTABLISHED: 1947
SIZE: 306 acres (0.5 square miles)
BUDGET: $119.9 million [not including DOE's Ohio Field Office] (93.7 percent defense-related) (1997)
EMPLOYEES: 34 [federal]; 740 [contractor] (as of 9/30/97)
FUNCTION: Until October 1994, produced non-nuclear components of nuclear weapons (e.g., detonators, timers, cable assemblies, pyrotechnic devices). Formerly developed tritium reservoirs; currently analyzes, disassembles, and recovers tritium from weapon components. Also assembles and tests plutonium-238 heat sources for radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) used in interplanetary probes, surveillance satellites, and classified military programs. Until November 30, 1961 Mound fabricated plutonium-beryllium neutron sources.
RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS ON-SITE: 2.2 kilograms of uranium-235 and 25 kilograms of plutonium
CONTRACTOR: Babcock & Wilcox of Ohio, a division of BWX Technologies (a wholly-owned subsidiary of McDermott International, Inc. )
FORMER CONTRACTOR: Monsanto Research Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Monsanto Chemical Company (formerly the Monsanto Chemical Company), 1948-1988; EG&G Mound Applied Technologies, a subsidiary of EG&G, Inc., 1988-1997
Courtesy: Stephen I. Schwartz, Brookings Institution, 1775 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, D.C. 20036-2188, Telephone (202) 797-6030 - Facsimile (202) 797-6003, Email: sschwartz@brook.edu

Pacific Proving Ground
Enewetak, Pacific Ocean
1947-1958 (on standby to July 1960)
ESTABLISHED: Selected on October 11, 1947; first nuclear test on April 14, 1948; last on August 8, 1958.
FUNCTION: Used for above-ground and underwater testing of 66 nuclear weapons (activities gradually transferred to Nevada Proving Ground during the 1950s). Some sites, notably Bikini Atoll, are still undergoing monitoring and decontamination.
FORMER CONTRACTORS: Test Division of the Santa Fe (later Albuquerque) Operations Office, 1947-1949; Holmes & Narver, Inc., 1949-1958
Courtesy: Stephen I. Schwartz, Brookings Institution, 1775 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, D.C. 20036-2188, Telephone (202) 797-6030 - Facsimile (202) 797-6003, Email: sschwartz@brook.edu

Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant [PGDP]
16 miles west of Paducah, Kentucky
1951-present
ESTABLISHED: Facilities built between 1951 and 1954; production operations for the nuclear weapons/naval nuclear propulsion programs began in 1953 and ceased in 1992.
SIZE: 3,422 acres (5.3 square miles); site encompasses 750 acres (1.2 square miles), including 74 acres of process buildings
BUDGET: The U.S. Enrichment Corporation does not release budget data for this facility; $46.6 million [DOE funded activities] (0 percent defense-related) (1997)
EMPLOYEES: 8 [federal]; 8 [USEC]; 2,101 [contractor] (as of 12/5/97)
FUNCTION: Enriches uranium (formerly for nuclear weapons and naval nuclear reactors, currently for civilian power reactors).
RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS ON-SITE: Unknown
CONTRACTOR: Lockheed Martin Utility Services, Inc. (a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation ); Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (a joint venture of Bechtel National, Inc. and Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc.)
FORMER CONTRACTORS: Union Carbide Corporation Nuclear Division (formerly Carbide and Carbon Chemical Corp.), 1952-1984; Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, formerly Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.), 1984-1998
Courtesy: Stephen I. Schwartz, Brookings Institution, 1775 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, D.C. 20036-2188, Telephone (202) 797-6030 - Facsimile (202) 797-6003, Email: sschwartz@brook.edu

Pinellas Plant
approximately six miles north of St. Petersburg, Florida
1957-September 1994
ESTABLISHED: Construction began in 1956; production commenced in 1957.
SIZE: 90 acres (0.14 square miles)
BUDGET: $64.1 million (100 percent defense-related) (1997)
EMPLOYEES: 12 [federal]; 5 [contractor] (as of 9/30/97)
FUNCTION: Manufactured neutron generators, thermal batteries, lithium ambient batteries, special capacitors and switches and other electrical and electronic components for nuclear weapons. Also manufactured radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), using plutonium-238 capsules provided by the Mound Laboratory.
RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS ON-SITE: None
FORMER CONTRACTORS: Built and operated by the General Electric Company, 1957-1992; Lockheed Martin Specialty Components, Inc. (a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation), 1992-1994
Courtesy: Stephen I. Schwartz, Brookings Institution, 1775 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, D.C. 20036-2188, Telephone (202) 797-6030 - Facsimile (202) 797-6003, Email: sschwartz@brook.edu

Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant [PORTS]
Piketon, Ohio, 20 miles north of Portsmouth
1952-present
ESTABLISHED: Facilities built between November, 1952 and 1956; production operations for the nuclear weapons/naval nuclear propulsion programs began in 1956 and ceased in 1992.
SIZE: 3,708 acres (5.8 square miles), including 93 acres of process buildings
BUDGET: The U.S. Enrichment Corporation does not release budget data for this facility; $61.2 million [DOE funded activities] (3.7 percent defense-related) (1997)
EMPLOYEES: 14 [federal]; 6 [USEC]; 2,595 [contractor] (as of 12/1/97)
FUNCTION: Enriches uranium (formerly for nuclear weapons and naval nuclear reactors-511 metric tons from 1956-1992-currently for civilian power reactors). Some of this uranium has been purchased from Russia under the USEC's "Megatons to Megawatts" program.
RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS ON-SITE: 23 metric tons of uranium-235 (22.5 metric tons declared excess by President Clinton on March 1, 1995)
CONTRACTOR: Lockheed Martin Utility Services, Inc. (a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation ); Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (a joint venture of Bechtel National, Inc. and Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc.)
FORMER CONTRACTORS: Goodyear Atomic Corporation, 1956-1986; Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, formerly Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.), 1986-1998
Courtesy: Stephen I. Schwartz, Brookings Institution, 1775 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, D.C. 20036-2188, Telephone (202) 797-6030 - Facsimile (202) 797-6003, Email: sschwartz@brook.edu

RMI Titanium Company Extrusion Plant
Ashtabula, Ohio
1952-1990
SIZE: 8.2 acres (357,192 square feet)
BUDGET: $16.1 million [not including DOE's Ohio Field Office] (100 percent defense-related) (1997)
FUNCTION: Formerly extruded uranium ingots into tubes and billets as a step in the fabrication of fuel and targets for the Savannah River production reactors. Production ceased on October 31, 1990. Currently undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D&D).
RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS ON-SITE: 1 metric ton of depleted uranium
CONTRACTOR: Owned and operated by RMI Titanium Company (formerly Reactive Metals Inc.), which is jointly owned by the National Distillers and Chemical Corporation and the USX (formerly United States Steel) Corporation
FORMER CONTRACTOR: Bridgeport Brass Company, 1952-1963
Courtesy: Stephen I. Schwartz, Brookings Institution, 1775 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, D.C. 20036-2188, Telephone (202) 797-6030 - Facsimile (202) 797-6003, Email: sschwartz@brook.edu

Rock Island Arsenal
Rock Island, Illinois
1947-1951; ~1956-1963 (Davy Crockett)
ESTABLISHED: July 1862; Atomic Energy Commission support began in 1947.
SIZE: 946 acres (1.5 square miles)
FUNCTION: Site apparently produced armored steel casings for Mk-3 and Mk-4 atomic bombs between 1947-1951. Casings were shipped via train to Iowa, where the train was joined to one carrying high explosive lenses from the Iowa Army Ordnance Depot. The train then proceeded to Kirtland Air Force Base in New Mexico. From there, the casings were trucked to Sandia Base for storage and eventual assembly into weapons. From about 1956 until 1963, the arsenal also designed and built the non-nuclear components for the Davy Crockett infantry nuclear weapon.
FORMER CONTRACTOR: U.S. Army
Courtesy: Stephen I. Schwartz, Brookings Institution, 1775 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, D.C. 20036-2188, Telephone (202) 797-6030 - Facsimile (202) 797-6003, Email: sschwartz@brook.edu

Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site
21 miles northwest of Denver, Colorado
1951-present
ESTABLISHED: Construction began in 1951; production commenced in 1952 and ceased in 1990.
SIZE: 6,550 acres (10.2 square miles)
BUDGET: $588.1 million [including DOE's Rocky Flats Field Office] (92.3 percent defense-related) (1997)
EMPLOYEES: 280 [federal]; 3,410 [contractor] (as of 9/30/97)
FUNCTION: Currently undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). Fabricates and repairs Safe Secure Transporters (SSTs) used to transport assembled weapons, weapons components and special nuclear materials (SNM). Formerly fabricated and assembled plutonium-239 "pits," uranium-235 (until mid-1965) and uranium-238 components, beryllium components and tritium reservoirs.
RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS ON-SITE: 12.7 metric tons of plutonium-239 (11.9 metric tons declared excess by President Clinton on March 1, 1995), 6.7 metric tons of uranium-235 (2.8 metric tons declared excess by President Clinton on March 1, 1995), and 262 metric tons of depleted uranium.
CONTRACTOR: Kaiser-Hill Company, L.L.C. (a joint venture subsidiary of ICF Kaiser International Inc., and CH2M Hill Cos. Ltd., and composed of Westinghouse Electric Corp., Babcock & Wilcox Co., Rocky Mountain Remediation Services [a joint effort of Morrison-Knudson Corp. and British Nuclear Fuels Limited], DynCorp Inc., Wackenhut Services Inc., and Quanterra Environmental Services)
FORMER CONTRACTORS: Dow Chemical Co., 1952-1975; Rockwell International Corp., North American Space Operations (formerly Atomics International Division), 1975-1989; EG&G Rocky Flats, Inc., 1989-1995
Courtesy: Stephen I. Schwartz, Brookings Institution, 1775 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, D.C. 20036-2188, Telephone (202) 797-6030 - Facsimile (202) 797-6003, Email: sschwartz@brook.edu

Sequoyah Fuels Corporation Plant
Gore, Oklahoma
1970-1992
ESTABLISHED: 1970
FUNCTION: Parts of the plant are closed and undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). Currently reprocesses depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF-6) to produce uranium tetrafluoride, commonly known as "green salt." Formerly processed natural uranium ("yellowcake") into uranium hexafluoride for use in the Paducah and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plants.
CONTRACTOR: General Atomics
FORMER CONTRACTOR: Kerr-McGee Corp., 1970-1988
Courtesy: Stephen I. Schwartz, Brookings Institution, 1775 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, D.C. 20036-2188, Telephone (202) 797-6030 - Facsimile (202) 797-6003, Email: sschwartz@brook.edu

South Albuquerque Works
Albuquerque, New Mexico, two miles west of Kirtland Air Force Base
1952-1967
FUNCTION: Former site for weapons research, development engineering, testing, production and fabrication activities as well as operations associated with reactors and space programs
FORMER CONTRACTOR: ACF Industries, Inc. (formerly American Car & Foundry, Inc.), Albuquerque Division
Courtesy: Stephen I. Schwartz, Brookings Institution, 1775 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, D.C. 20036-2188, Telephone (202) 797-6030 - Facsimile (202) 797-6003, Email: sschwartz@brook.edu

Weldon Spring Feed Materials Plant
Weldon Spring, Missouri, 27 miles west of St. Louis
1958-1967
ESTABLISHED: Built between 1955 and 1958; operations began in May, 1957
SIZE: 229 acres (0.4 square miles)
BUDGET: $63.7 million (100 percent defense-related) (1997)
FUNCTION: Supplied uranium and thorium "feed materials" to facilities producing fissionable materials (consolidated at Fernald). Currently undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D&D).
FORMER CONTRACTOR: Mallinckrodt Chemical Works
Courtesy: Stephen I. Schwartz, Brookings Institution, 1775 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, D.C. 20036-2188, Telephone (202) 797-6030 - Facsimile (202) 797-6003, Email: sschwartz@brook.edu