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United States: Operational Facilities

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Ames Laboratory
Ames, Iowa
ESTABLISHED: 1947
SIZE: 10 acres (435,600 square feet)
BUDGET: $33.5 million (4.7 percent defense-related) (2013)
EMPLOYEES: 430 (2013)
FUNCTION: Conducts basic research on nuclear materials and nuclear waste remediation
RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS ON-SITE: 15.5 grams of plutonium and 31 grams of uranium-235
CONTRACTOR: Iowa State University (formerly Iowa State College)
Courtesy: Stephen I. Schwartz, Brookings Institution, 1775 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, D.C. 20036-2188, Telephone (202) 797-6030 - Facsimile (202) 797-6003, Email: sschwartz@brook.edu

Argonne National Laboratory [ANL]
Argonne, IL (ANL-East), 22 miles southwest of downtown Chicago, and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, ID (ANL-West)
ESTABLISHED: July 1, 1946
SIZE: 1,704 acres (2.7 square miles) [ANL-E]
BUDGET: $794 million ANL (2013)
EMPLOYEES: 3,456 (2012)
FUNCTION: Conducts research on advanced nuclear reactor technologies.
RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS ON-SITE: 1.15 kilograms of plutonium and less than one metric ton of uranium-235 [ANL-E]; 4.0 metric tons of plutonium-239 and less than 10 metric tons of uranium-235 [ANL-W]
CONTRACTOR: University of Chicago and Argonne Universities Association
Courtesy: Stephen I. Schwartz, Brookings Institution, 1775 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, D.C. 20036-2188, Telephone (202) 797-6030 - Facsimile (202) 797-6003, Email: sschwartz@brook.edu

Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory
West Mifflin, Pennsylvania
ESTABLISHED: 1948
SIZE: 207 acres (0.32 square miles)
BUDGET: $354.8 million [including DOE's Pittsburgh Naval Reactors Office] (100 percent defense-related) (2001)
EMPLOYEES: 67 [federal]; 2,972 [contractor] (as of 9/30/97)
FUNCTION: Designs, builds and tests prototype naval nuclear reactors and trains U.S. Navy personnel in their operation and maintenance.
RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS ON-SITE: 272 grams of plutonium and approximately 5.5 kilograms of uranium-235
CONTRACTOR: Bechtel National, Inc.1998-Present
FORMER CONTRACTOR: Westinghouse Bettis Co. (formerly Westinghouse Electric Corp., Atomic Power Division), 1948-1998
Courtesy: Stephen I. Schwartz, Brookings Institution, 1775 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, D.C. 20036-2188, Telephone (202) 797-6030 - Facsimile (202) 797-6003, Email: sschwartz@brook.edu

Brookhaven National Laboratory [BNL]
Upton, Long Island, New York, 60 miles east of New York City
FACTSHEET:http://www.bnl.gov/bnlweb/pubaf/fact_sheet/pdf/FS-AboutBrookhaven.pdf
ESTABLISHED: January 31, 1947
SIZE: 5,300 acres (8.3 square miles)
BUDGET: $700 million (2012)
EMPLOYEES: 3,000 (2012)
FUNCTION: Conducts research on nuclear weapons, nuclear waste remediation, nuclear materials production, nuclear safeguards and security, and verification and control technologies.
RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS ON-SITE: Approximately 41.6 kilograms of uranium-235 (all declared excess by President Clinton on March 1, 1995)
CONTRACTORS: Brookhaven Science Associates (a 50-50 partnership between The Research Foundation of the State University of New York-on behalf of the State University of New York at Stony Brook-and Battelle Memorial Institute of Columbus, Ohio); Bechtel National, Inc.; Duke Engineering and Services; Waste Management Federal Services, Inc.
FORMER CONTRACTOR: Associated Universities, Inc. (a consortium founded in 1946 by Columbia University, Cornell University, Harvard University, The Johns Hopkins University, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the University of Pennsylvania, Princeton University, the University of Rochester, and Yale University), 1947-1998
Courtesy: Stephen I. Schwartz, Brookings Institution, 1775 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, D.C. 20036-2188, Telephone (202) 797-6030 - Facsimile (202) 797-6003, Email: sschwartz@brook.edu

Holston Army Ammunition Plant
Kingsport, Tennessee, 85 miles northeast of Knoxville
ESTABLISHED: 1942; began making high explosives for nuclear weapons in 1961
SIZE: 6,020 acres (9.4 square miles)
EMPLOYEES: 475 (as of 11/30/97)
FUNCTION: Sole source (since 1961) of a high explosive (HE) chemical powder used to fabricate high explosive lenses for nuclear weapons (see footnote 16 for further information).
CONTRACTORS: managed and operated for the U.S. Army by BAE Systems Ordnance Systems, Inc., a subsidiary of BAE Systems (formerly British Aerospace); Wackenhut Services, Inc.
FORMER CONTRACTOR: Holston Defense Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Eastman Chemical Company, 1942-December 31, 1998
Courtesy: Stephen I. Schwartz, Brookings Institution, 1775 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, D.C. 20036-2188, Telephone (202) 797-6030 - Facsimile (202) 797-6003, Email: sschwartz@brook.edu

Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory [INEEL]
42 miles northwest of Idaho Falls, Idaho
ESTABLISHED: 1949
SIZE: 563,135 acres (877 square miles)
BUDGET: $1 billion (2010)
EMPLOYEES: 4,100 (2020)
FUNCTION: Researches, develops, tests and evaluates naval and breeder reactors, and manages high-level and transuranic nuclear waste. Fabricates depleted uranium armor for M1-A1/A2 tanks. From 1953-1992, the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) reprocessed spent naval reactor fuel to recover uranium-235 (some of which was fabricated into fuel for the Savannah River reactors beginning in 1968) and krypton-85. Facilities include 52 reactors (3 still operating, 10 operable but currently shut down for lack of funding) and 11 stainless steel high-level waste underground storage tanks. Four reactors (two submarine prototypes and two aircraft carrier prototypes), all inactivated, are at the Naval Reactors Facility maintained by the Navy's Nuclear Reactors Office.
RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS ON-SITE: 0.5 metric tons of plutonium-239 (0.4 metric tons declared excess by President Clinton on March 1, 1995), 26.2 metric tons of uranium-235 (23.4 metric tons declared excess by President Clinton on March 1, 1995), and 40 metric tons of uranium-233
CONTRACTORS:Bechtel BWXT Idaho, LLC (composed of Bechtel National, Inc. and BWX Technologies); Bechtel Bettis, Inc. [Naval Reactors Facility]; University of Chicago [Argonne National Laboratory-West]; Inland Northwest Research Alliance
FORMER CONTRACTORS: Phillips Petroleum Co., Atomic Energy Division, 1950-1966; American Cyanamid Co. [ICPP], 1953; Combustion Engineering Inc., Nuclear Division [Naval Reactor Facility], 1959-1965; Aerojet General Corp. and Aerojet General Nucleonics, 1959-1965; Aerojet General Corp., 1965-1966; General Electric Company, 1965-1968; Idaho Nuclear Corp. (a jointly owned subsidiary of Aerojet General Corp., Allied Chemical Corp. and [beginning in 1969] Phillips Petroleum Co.), 1966-71; Aerojet Nuclear Co. (a wholly owned subsidiary of Aerojet General Corp.), 1971-1976; Allied Chemical Corp. [ICPP], 1971-1980; Exxon Nuclear Idaho Company [ICPP], 1980-1984; EG&G3 Idaho, Inc., 1984-1994; Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Co. [ICPP], 1984-1994; Rockwell International Corp. [SMC] (Special Manufacturing Capability for M1-A1/A2 tank armor), December 1986-1991; Babcock and Wilcox [SMC] (Special Manufacturing Capability for M1-A1/A2 tank armor), 1991-1994; Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (composed of Lockheed and Babcock & Wilcox Idaho, Coleman Research, Duke Engineering and Services, NUMATEC, Parsons Environmental Services, Rust International [Rust Federal Services] and the Thermo Electron Corporation [Thermo Technology Ventures]), a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, 1994-1999; Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company [ICPP], 1994-1999; Westinghouse Electric Corp. [Naval Reactor Facility], 1994-1999; Argonne National Laboratory-West [fast breeder reactor program], 1994-1999; Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company [SMC] (Special Manufacturing Capability for depleted uranium M1-A1/A2 tank armor), 1994-1999
Courtesy: Stephen I. Schwartz, Brookings Institution, 1775 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, D.C. 20036-2188, Telephone (202) 797-6030 - Facsimile (202) 797-6003, Email: sschwartz@brook.edu

Kansas City Plant
12 miles south of downtown Kansas City, Missouri
FACTSHEET:http://www.ucsusa.org/assets/documents/nwgs/nuclear-weapons-complex/kansas-city-plant-fact-sheet.pdf ESTABLISHED: 1 9 4 9
E STABLISHED: 1949 ESTABLISHED: 1949
SIZE: 136 acres (0.2 square miles; 113 acres of process buildings covering 3.2 million square feet)
BUDGET: $535 million (99 percent defense-related) (2013)
EMPLOYEES: 2, 500 (2013)
FUNCTION: Produces or procures electronic, electro-mechanical, rubber, plastic and metal components for nuclear weapons, including arming, fuzing and firing systems, radars and coded safety locks known as PALs (Permissive Action Links).
RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS ON-SITE: 1.2 grams of plutonium
CONTRACTOR: Honeywell Federal Manufacturing and Technologies, a division of Honeywell, Inc.
FORMER CONTRACTOR: Bendix Kansas City Division of Allied-Signal (formerly the Bendix Aviation Corporation), 1949-2000
Courtesy: Stephen I. Schwartz, Brookings Institution, 1775 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, D.C. 20036-2188, Telephone (202) 797-6030 - Facsimile (202) 797-6003, Email: sschwartz@brook.edu

Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory [KAPL]
Niskayuna and West Milton, New York; Windsor, Connecticut
ESTABLISHED: 1947
SIZE: 170 acres (0.3 square miles) at Niskayuna; 3,900 acres (6.1 square miles) at West Milton; 10.8 acres at Windsor
BUDGET: $314.5 million (100 percent defense-related) (2006)
EMPLOYEES: 2,600 (2013)
FUNCTION: Designs, builds and tests prototype naval nuclear reactors and trains U.S. Navy personnel in their operation and maintenance. Maintains two operational and two inactive (defueled) test reactors at Niskayuna, NY, and an inactive (defueled) reactor at Windsor, CT (shut down in March 1993).
RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS ON-SITE: 1.6 metric tons of uranium-235 and 171.7 grams of plutonium
CONTRACTOR:KAPL, Inc. (formerly Lockheed Martin-KAPL Company, Inc., a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation)
FORMER CONTRACTOR: General Electric Company, 1947-1993
Courtesy: Stephen I. Schwartz, Brookings Institution, 1775 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, D.C. 20036-2188, Telephone (202) 797-6030 - Facsimile (202) 797-6003, Email: sschwartz@brook.edu

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory [LLNL]
Livermore, California
FACTSHEET:http://www.ucsusa.org/assets/documents/nwgs/nuclear-weapons-complex/livermore-fact-sheet.pdf
ES T A B L I SHED: July 1952 ESTABLISHED: July 1952 ESTABLISHED: July 1952
SIZE: 7,321 acres (11.4 square miles)
BUDGET: $1.24 billion (82 percent defense-related) (2013)
EMPLOYEES: 6, 800 (2013)
FUNCTION: Conducts research, development and testing activities associated with all phases of the nuclear weapons life-cycle, as well as research on non-proliferation, arms control and treaty verification technology. Facilities include an explosives test site, a tritium facility, the NOVA laser, the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) plant, Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) facilities, the National Ignition Facility (NIF, currently under construction) and the High Explosive Application Facility (HEAF).
RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS ON-SITE: 0.3 metric tons of plutonium-239, 0.2 metric tons of uranium-235, and 3.1 metric tons of uranium-233
CONTRACTOR: University of California, Board of Regents
Courtesy: Stephen I. Schwartz, Brookings Institution, 1775 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, D.C. 20036-2188, Telephone (202) 797-6030 - Facsimile (202) 797-6003, Email: sschwartz@brook.edu

Los Alamos National Laboratory [LANL]
Los Alamos, New Mexico
FACTSHEET:http://www.ucsusa.org/assets/documents/nwgs/nuclear-weapons-complex/los-alamos-fact-sheet.pdf ESTABLISHED: Site selected on November 25, 1942 (code ESTABLISHED: Site selected on November 25, 1942 (code name Site Y).
SIZE: 27,520 acres (43 square miles)
BUDGET: $2 billion (70 percent defense-related) (2013)
EMPLOYEES: 10,400 (2013)
FUNCTION: Conducts research, development and testing activities associated with all phases of the nuclear weapons life-cycle, as well as arms control and nuclear proliferation. Facilities include plutonium and tritium processing plants, an eight megawatt research reactor and various laser and high explosives buildings. Until April 1984, Los Alamos had the capability to fabricate and assemble nuclear weapons test devices.
RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS ON-SITE: 2.7 metric tons of plutonium-239 (1.5 metric tons declared excess by President Clinton on March 1, 1995), 3.2 metric tons of uranium-235 (0.5 metric tons declared excess by President Clinton on March 1, 1995), and more than 1 metric ton of uranium-233
CONTRACTOR: University of California, Board of Regents
Courtesy: Stephen I. Schwartz, Brookings Institution, 1775 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, D.C. 20036-2188, Telephone (202) 797-6030 - Facsimile (202) 797-6003, Email: sschwartz@brook.edu

Nevada Test Site [NTS]
65 miles northwest of Las Vegas
FACTSHEET:http://www.ucsusa.org/assets/documents/nwgs/nuclear-weapons-complex/nevada-national-security-fact-sheet.pdf
ESTABLISHED: cted in December____n ESTABLISHED: Selected in December 1950; first nuclear test on January 27, 1951; last on September 23, 1992; 928 total tests (100 atmospheric, 828 underground, including 24 joint U.S.-United Kingdom tests)
SIZE: 864,000 acres (1,350 square miles)
BUDGET: $363 million (67 percent defense-related) (2013)
EMPLOYEES: 1,900 (2013)
FUNCTION:Field tests nuclear weapons for development, safety and weapons effects purposes. From the 1959 through 1972 a portion of the site, designated the Nuclear Rocket Development Station (NRDS), was used to test 21 above-ground prototypes of space nuclear propulsion reactors.9 In mid-1993, construction was completed on the $109 million Device Assembly Facility, (DAF), a 100,000 square foot building within a highly secured 22 acre portion of the test site. The facility includes five high explosives containment cells, called "Gravel Gerties," three weapon assembly bays, two radiographic areas and storage bunkers. In August 2002, the DOE announced that the TA-18 facility at Los Alamos will be relocated to the DAF.
RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS ON-SITE: 16 kilograms of plutonium-239 and 217 grams of uranium-235 (does not include significant residues resulting from testing activities)
CONTRACTORS: Bechtel Nevada Corporation ; Lockheed Martin Nevada Technologies, Inc.; Johnson Controls Nevada, Inc.; Wackenhut Services, Inc.
FORMER CONTRACTORS: Test Division of the Santa Fe (later Albuquerque) Operations Office ,1951-1962; Holmes & Narver, Inc., 1956-1990; Fenix & Sisson of Nevada, Inc., 1963-1990; EG&G Energy Measurements, Inc., 1951-1995; Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Co. (REECo), 1953-1995; Raytheon Services Nevada (RSN), 1990-1995
Courtesy: Stephen I. Schwartz, Brookings Institution, 1775 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, D.C. 20036-2188, Telephone (202) 797-6030 - Facsimile (202) 797-6003, Email: sschwartz@brook.edu

Nuclear Fuel Services
Erwin, Tennessee
ESTABLISHED: Constructed in 1957; developed naval fuel fabrication process between 1964-1968; awarded contract for the U.S.S. Nimitz reactors in 1968.
SIZE: 66 acres (0.1 square miles)
EMPLOYEES: 700 (2013)
FUNCTION: Sole facility (since 1978) to convert uranium hexafluoride into the chemical and physical form used in naval reactor fuel elements.
RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS ON-SITE: Unknown
CONTRACTOR: Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc.
Courtesy: Stephen I. Schwartz, Brookings Institution, 1775 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, D.C. 20036-2188, Telephone (202) 797-6030 - Facsimile (202) 797-6003, Email: sschwartz@brook.edu

Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Oak Ridge, Tennessee
FACTSHEET:http://www.ucsusa.org/assets/documents/nwgs/nuclear-weapons-complex/y-12-complex-fact-sheet.pdf
ESTABLISHED: Site selected on September 19, 1942 (code name Site X) ESTABLISHED: Site selected on September 19, 1942 (code name Site X)
SIZE: 35,252 acres (55.1 square miles) [2900 acres/4.5 square miles (ORNL); 1500 acres/2.3 square miles (K-25 Plant); 811 acres/1.3 square miles (Y-12 Plant)
BUDGET: $982 million (98 percent defense-related) (2013)
EMPLOYEES: 4,600 (2013)
FUNCTION: Produces weapon components to support to support the activities of the design laboratories and the Nevada Test Site, fabricates materials for the naval nuclear reactor program, and stores (in the Y-12 Plant) highly-enriched uranium (HEU) returned from dismantled weapons. Formerly produced uranium-235 (483 metric tons) and lithium-6 deuteride (442.4 metric tons) for nuclear weapons. Site of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).
RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS ON-SITE: 189 metric tons of uranium-235 and 3.0 metric tons of low-enriched uranium at the Y-12 Plant, 1.5 metric tons of uranium-235 at the K-25 Plant, and 1.4 metric tons of uranium-235 and 424 metric tons of uranium-233 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. (84.9 metric tons of uranium-235 declared excess by President Clinton on March 1, 1995)
CONTRACTORS: UT-Battelle, LLC (a joint venture of the University of Tennessee and Battelle Memorial Institute); Bechtel National, Inc.; Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (a joint venture of Bechtel National, Inc. and Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc.); BWXT Y-12, LLC (a unit of McDermott International); M-K Ferguson Oak Ridge, Co.; Oak Ridge Associated Universities; Southeastern Universities Research Association; Wackenhut Services, Inc.
FORMER CONTRACTORS:Built by E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company; Tennessee Eastman Corporation, a subsidiary of Eastman Kodak [Y-12 Plant], 1943-1947; Metallurgical Laboratory of the University of Chicago [X-10 Plant], 1943-1945; Monsanto Chemical Corporation [X-10 Plant], 1945-1947; Union Carbide Corp. Nuclear Division (formerly Carbide and Carbon Chemical Corp.) [K-25 Plant], 1943-1984; Union Carbide Corp. Nuclear Division (formerly Carbide and Carbon Chemical Corp.) [Y-12 Plant], 1947-1984; Union Carbide Corp. Nuclear Division (formerly Carbide and Carbon Chemical Corp.) [ORNL], 1948-1984; Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, formerly Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.), 1984-1998; Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation), 1998-2000; Westinghouse Environmental Management Co., ?-2000; Molten Metal Technology, Inc., 1994-2000
Courtesy: Stephen I. Schwartz, Brookings Institution, 1775 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, D.C. 20036-2188, Telephone (202) 797-6030 - Facsimile (202) 797-6003, Email: sschwartz@brook.edu

Pantex Plant
17 miles northeast of Amarillo, Texas
FACTSHEET:http://www.ucsusa.org/assets/documents/nwgs/nuclear-weapons-complex/pantex-fact-sheet.pdf
ESTABLISHED: 1942, to load TNT and other explosives into ESTABLISHED: 1942, to load TNT and other explosives into conventional shells. Site selected for nuclear weapons work in 1950; extensive renovations completed in 1952 and first assembly (of Mk-6 bombs) occurred in May 1952.
SIZE: 16,000 acres (25 square miles)
BUDGET: $587 million (100 percent defense-related) (2013)
EMPLOYEES: 3, 600 (2013)
FUNCTION: Currently evaluates, refurbishes, and modifies stockpiled weapons, fabricates high-explosive components and disassembles retired nuclear weapons. Formerly assembled weapons. Last new nuclear weapon ( W88 warhead ) assembled on July 31, 1990.
RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS ON-SITE: Classified. As of May 6, 1999, 12,067 plutonium pits and an estimated 300-400 assembled weapons are stored in protective bunkers called igloos. There are 66.1 metric tons of plutonium-239 in currently deployed weapons, weapons destined for disassembly at Pantex and those presently stored at Pantex. Of that total, 21.3 metric tons was declared excess by President Clinton on March 1, 1995. An additional 16.7 metric tons of uranium-235 was also declared excess.
CONTRACTOR:BWXT Pantex
FORMER CONTRACTOR:Procter & Gamble Defense Corporation, 1952-1956; Mason and Hanger-Silas Mason Company, Inc. (a subsidiary of Day and Zimmerman since 1999), 1956-2001
Courtesy: Stephen I. Schwartz, Brookings Institution, 1775 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, D.C. 20036-2188, Telephone (202) 797-6030 - Facsimile (202) 797-6003, Email: sschwartz@brook.edu

Sandia National Laboratories [SNL]
inside Kirtland Air Force Base, Albuquerque, New Mexico; Livermore, California;
Tonopah Test Range (northwest of the Nevada Test Site), Nevada
FACTSHEET:http://www.ucsusa.org/assets/documents/nwgs/nuclear-weapons-complex/sandia-fact-sheet.pdf ESTABLISHED: 1945 (in Albuquerque), 1956 (in Livermore) ESTABLISHED: 1945 (in Albuquerque), 1956 (in Livermore)
SIZE: 7,600 acres (11.9 square miles) at Kirtland/Albuquerque; 413 acres (0.6 square miles) at Livermore; 409,600 acres (640 square miles) at Tonopah
BUDGET: $1.8 billion (77 percent defense-related) (2013)
EMPLOYEES: 10,700 (2013)
FUNCTION: Responsible for research, development and testing of all non-nuclear components in nuclear weapons; develops transportation and storage systems for nuclear weapons; assesses nuclear weapons safety, security and control and helps train military personnel in the assembly and maintenance of completed weapons.
RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS ON-SITE: 0.9 metric tons of uranium-235 (0.2 metric tons declared excess by President Clinton on March 1, 1995) and 8.1 kilograms of plutonium (Livermore)
CONTRACTOR: Sandia Corporation (a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation)
FORMER CONTRACTORS: University of California, Board of Regents, 1945-10/31/49; Sandia Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Western Electric Company, Inc. (later AT&T Technologies, Inc.), a subsidiary of the American Telephone and Telegraph Company, 11/1/49-1993
Courtesy: Stephen I. Schwartz, Brookings Institution, 1775 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, D.C. 20036-2188, Telephone (202) 797-6030 - Facsimile (202) 797-6003, Email: sschwartz@brook.edu

Savannah River Site [SRS]
(12 miles south of Aiken, South Carolina)
FACTSHEET:http://www.ucsusa.org/assets/documents/nwgs/nuclear-weapons-complex/savannah-river-site-fact-sheet.pdf
ESTABLISHED: Site selected on November 22, ESTABLISHED: Site selected on November 22, 1950; operations began on October 3, 1952, with basic plant construction completed in 1956.
SIZE: 198,400 acres (310 square miles; production facilities occupy approximately 16 square miles)
BUDGET: $1.6 billion (81.2 percent defense-related) (2013)
EMPLOYEES: 12,000
FUNCTION: Manages high-level nuclear wastes and refills tritium reservoirs. Processes plutonium-238 for use in radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). Formerly produced weapon-grade plutonium (36.1 metric tons), tritium and deuterium for nuclear weapons. Facilities include five reactors, two chemical separation plants, two tritium facilities, 51 high-level waste underground storage tanks, a high-level waste plant (the Defense Waste Processing Facility) and a completed but unopened naval reactor fuel fabrication facility.
RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS ON-SITE: 2.0 metric tons of plutonium-239 (1.3 metric tons declared excess by President Clinton on March 1, 1995) and 24.4 metric tons of uranium-235 (22 metric tons declared excess by President Clinton on March 1, 1995)
CONTRACTORS: Westinghouse Savannah River Company; Bechtel; Wackenhut Services, Inc.
FORMER CONTRACTOR: Built and operated by E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, 1950-1989
Courtesy: Stephen I. Schwartz, Brookings Institution, 1775 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, D.C. 20036-2188, Telephone (202) 797-6030 - Facsimile (202) 797-6003, Email: sschwartz@brook.edu

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant [WIPP]
26 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico
ESTABLISHED: Conceptual work in mid-1970s; construction began on July 4, 1981
SIZE: 10,240 acres (16 square miles)
BUDGET: $208.2 million(100 percent defense-related) (2001)
EMPLOYEES: 57 [federal]; 636 [contractor] (as of 9/30/97)
FUNCTION: To assess the feasibility of safe underground storage of transuranic (TRU) waste from nuclear weapons manufacturing processes. The first shipment of waste to WIPP (from Los Alamos National Laboratory) was delivered on March 26, 1999.
RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS ON-SITE: None
CONTRACTOR: Westinghouse WIPP Company (a subsidiary of Westinghouse Electric Corp.)
Courtesy: Stephen I. Schwartz, Brookings Institution, 1775 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, D.C. 20036-2188, Telephone (202) 797-6030 - Facsimile (202) 797-6003, Email: sschwartz@brook.edu

Yucca Mountain Project
65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, adjacent to the Nevada Test Site
ESTABLISHED: Surface-based studies began in May 1986. The Nuclear Waste Policy Act Amendment of 1987 designated Yucca Mountain as the sole site to be studied as a potential underground repository for high-level radioactive waste.
BUDGET: $0 (2013)
EMPLOYEES: 0
FUNCTION: Proposed site for safe underground storage of some vitrified high-level defense wastes and spent nuclear fuel from commercial power reactors.
RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS ON-SITE: None
CONTRACTOR: Bechtel/SAIC Company, LLC (BSC)
FORMER CONTRACTORS: TESS (TRW Environmental and Safety Systems), 1986-2001; B&W Fuel Company, 1986-2001; Duke Engineering and Services, 1986-2001; Fluor Daniel, 1986-2001; INTERA, Inc., 1986-2001; Morrison-Knudson Corporation, 1986-2001; Woodward-Clyde Federal Services, 1986-2001
Courtesy: Stephen I. Schwartz, Brookings Institution, 1775 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, D.C. 20036-2188, Telephone (202) 797-6030 - Facsimile (202) 797-6003, Email: sschwartz@brook.edu