Nuclear Weapons Issues Policies Israeli Nuclear Policy Endnotes for John Steinbach's "The Israeli Nuclear Weapons Program"

Endnotes for John Steinbach's "The Israeli Nuclear Weapons Program"

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1 Walter Pincus, “Push for Nuclear-Free Middle East Resurfaces,” Washington Post, March 6, 2005 (http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A10418-2005Mar5.html), accessed December 20, 2008

2 Seymour Hersh, The Samson Option: Israel’s Nuclear Arsenal and American Foreign Policy (New York, NY: Random House, 1991), p. 319 (A brilliant and prophetic work with much original research)

3 “Former weapons inspector Blix says Olmert’s Nuclear Comment Unlikely to Spark Arab Backlash,” International Herald Tribune, December 13, 2006 (http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2006/12/13/europe/EU_GEN_Netherlands_Blix_Nuclear.php), accessed December 20, 2008

4 Ted Flaherty, Nuclear Database: Israel’s Possible Nuclear Delivery Systems, Center for Defense Information, 1997 (http://www.cdi.org/nuclear/database/isnukes.html), accessed December 20, 2008

5 Joseph Cirincione, Jon B. Wolfsthal and Miriam Rajkumar, Deadly Arsenals: Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Threats (Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2006), p. 265

6 Aluf Benn, “Israel: Censoring the Past,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, July/August 2001, pp. 17–19 (http://www.bsos.umd.edu/pgsd/people/staffpubs/Avner-BASreport7-01.htm), accessed December 20, 2008. The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists was founded in 1945 by dissident Manhattan Project scientists. It is considered an authoritative source on nuclear issues.

7 Israeli Atomic Energy Commission, “Research and publications by IAEC personnel,” (http://www.iaec.gov.il/pages_e/card_report_e.asp), accessed March 10, 2009

8 Prime Minister’s Office, “Atomic Energy Commission,” (http://www.pmo.gov.il/PMOEng/PM+Office/Bodies/depenergy.htm), accessed March 10, 2009

9 Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI), “Israel Nuclear Facilities: Overview of Organizations and Facilities,” (http://www.nti.org/e_research/profiles/Israel/Nuclear/3583.html), accessed March 10, 2009

10 Global Security, “Israel Atomic Energy Commission,” (http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/world/israel/iaec.htm), Accessed March 10, 2009

11 David Bedein, “Israel May Expand Its Nuclear Power,” The Philadelphia Bulletin, November 13, 2008

12 Amit Baruah, “Now Israel Wants NSG Rules Changed,” The Hindustan Times, August 28, 2007 (http://www.hindustantimes.com/StoryPage/FullcoverageStoryPage.aspx?sectionName=NLetter&id=9a7f3e9c-db05-4333-beb1-ccece17c6658_Special&Headline=Now%2c+Israel+wants+NSG+rules+changed) Accessed March 10, 2009

13 Dominic Moran, “Middle East Moves,” ISN Security Watch, (http://www.isn.ethz.ch/isn/Current-Affairs/Security-Watch/Detail/?ots591=4888CAA0-B3DB-1461-98B9-E20E7B9C13D4&lng=en&id=54151), Accessed March 10, 2009

14 Avner Cohen, Israel and the Bomb (New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 1998), p. 10

15 Ibid., pp. 15–16

16 Ibid., p. 16

17 Ibid., p. 13

18 Avner Cohen and William Burr, “The Untold Story of Israel’s Bomb,” Washington Post, Sunday, April 30, 2006, B-01 (http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/04/28/AR2006042801326_pf.html), accessed December 20, 2008

19 Ella Habiba Shohat, “Reflections by an Arab Jew,” Bint Jbeil, April 17, 1999 (http://www.bintjbeil.com/E/occupation/arab_jew.html), accessed December 20, 2008

20 “Demographics of Israel,” Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demographics_of_Israel), accessed December 20, 2008

21 Ibid.

22 Uri Avnery, “Sorry, Wrong Continent,” Gush Shalom, December 23, 2006 (http://zope.gush-shalom.org/home/en/channels/avnery/1166960371), accessed December 20, 2008

22 Ibid.

23 Charlotte Halle, “Foreign Ministry Slams Envoy’s Comments about 'Yellow Race',” Haaretz, October 24, 2006 (http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/774471.html), accessed December 20, 2008

24 Karen Armstrong, The Battle for God (New York, NY: 2000), pp. 278–309

25 Walter Zander, “Israel and the Anti-Colonial Movement: Orientation Toward the Orient or the Occident?” Jewish Observer and Middle East Review, February 24, 1956 (http://walterzander.info/acrobat/Israel%20and%20anti.pdf), accessed December 20, 2008

26 Shibley Telhami (Principal Investigator), 2008 Annual Arab Public Opinion Poll,
Survey of the Anwar Sadat Chair for Peace and Development at the University of Maryland (with Zogby International), 2008 (http://www.brookings.edu/topics/~/media/Files/events/2008/0414_middle_east/0414_middle_east_telhami.pdf), accessed December 20, 2008. (Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates were surveyed)

27 Geneva Initiative, New Survey of Israeli Public Opinion, Prospects for Peace, 2007 (http://www.prospectsforpeace.com/2007/07/new_survey_of_israeli_public_o.html), accessed December 20, 2008.

28 “Israel Nuclear Overview,” Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI), August 2008 (http://www.nti.org/e_research/profiles/Israel/Nuclear/index.html), accessed December 20, 2008

29 Hersh, S., op. cit., pp. 27–46

30 Michael Karpin, The Bomb In The Basement: How Israel Went Nuclear and What It Means for the World (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster Paperbacks, 2006), pp. 57–95

31 U.S. Army Lt. Col. Warner D. Farr, “The Third Temple Holy of Holies: Israel’s Nuclear Weapons,” USAF Counter-proliferation Center, Air War College, September 1999 (www.fas.org/nuke/guide/israel/nuke/farr.htm), accessed December 20, 2008. (This is perhaps the best single condensed history of the Israeli nuclear program.)

32 Peter Hounam, Woman from Mossad: The Torment of Mordechai Vanunu (London: Vision Paperbacks, 1999), pp. 34–35. (The most complete and up to date account of the Vanunu story by the London Sunday Times reporter who broke the story.)

33 Hersh, S., op. cit., p. 30

34 “Israel Nuclear Overview,” NTI, op. cit.

35 Hounam, P., op. cit., p. 36

36 Cohen, A., 1998, p. 187

37 Farr, W.D., op. cit.

38 Karpin, M., op. cit., pp. 268–269

39 Benjamin Pincus, “Atomic Power to Israel’s Rescue: French-Israeli Nuclear Cooperation 1949–1957,” Israel Studies, vol. 7, no. 1, Spring 2002, pp. 104–138 (http://muse.jhu.edu/login?uri=/journals/israel_studies/v007/7.1pinkus.htmlhttp://www.nti.org/e_research/profiles/Israel/Nuclear/index.html), accessed December 20, 2008

40 Karpin, M. op. cit., p. 276

41 Cohen, A., 1998, pp. 273–274

42 Hersh, S., op. cit., p. 131

43 Mark Gaffney, Dimona the Third Temple: The Story Behind the Vanunu Revelation (Brattleboro, VT: Amana Books, 1989), pp. 68–69

44 “Uranium: The Israeli Connection,” Time Magazine, May 30, 1977 (http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,914952,00.html), accessed December 20, 2008

45 Hersh, S., op. cit., pp. 242–257

46 “Israel: Uranium Processing and Enrichment,” Wisconsin Project on Nuclear Arms Control, The Risk Report, vol. 2, no. 4, 1996, (http://www.wisconsinproject.org/countries/israel/uranium.html), accessed December 20, 2008

47 Gary Milholland, “A Heavy Water Whitewash,” Arbeiderbladet (Oslo), April 20, 1988
(http://www.wisconsinproject.org/pubs/editorials/1988/heavywaterwhitewash.htm), accessed December 20, 2008

48 Farr, W.D., op. cit., p. 8

49 Hersh, S. op. cit., pp. 271–283

50 Farr, W.D., op. cit., p. 12

51 “South Africa’s Nuclear Autopsy,” Wisconsin Project On Nuclear Arms Control, The Risk Report, vol. 2, no. 1, 1996, p. 4, 5, 10 (http://www.wisconsinproject.org/countries/safrica/autopsy.html), accessed December 20, 2008

52 Farr, W.D., op. cit., p. 8

53 Mark Wade Jericho, Encyclopedia Astronautica (http://www.astronautix.com/lvfam/jericho.htm), accessed December 20, 2008

54 Barbara Rogers and Zdenek Cervenka, The Nuclear Axis: The Secret Collaboration Between West Germany and South Africa (New York, NY: Times Books, 1978), pp. 325–328 (the definitive history of the Apartheid Bomb)

55 Gaffney, M., op. cit., p. 34

56 “Israel Profile: Nuclear Overview,” Nuclear Threat Initiative (http://www.nti.org/e_research/profiles/Israel/Nuclear/index.html), accessed December 20, 2008

57 Cohen, A., op. cit., pp. 336–338

58 Ibid., p. 323

59 Stephen Zunes, “The Release of Mordechai Vanunu and U.S. Complicity in the Development of Israel’s Nuclear Arsenal,” Foreign Policy in Focus, April 21, 2004 (http://www.fpif.org/fpiftxt/1134), accessed December 20, 2008

60 Hounan, P., op. cit., pp. 155–168

61 Hersh, S., op. cit., p. 213

62 Ibid., pp. 3–17

63 “Israel Gets US Supercomputer for Secret Military Site,” Wisconsin Project on Nuclear Arms Control, The Risk Report, vol. 2, no. 3, 1996
(http://www.wisconsinproject.org/countries/israel/israelgets.htm), accessed December 20, 2008

64 Gerard C. Smith and Helen Cobban, “A Blind Eye to Nuclear Proliferation,” Foreign Affairs, Summer 1989, pp. 59–63
(http://www.foreignaffairs.org/19890601faessay5960/gerard-c-smith-helena-cobban/a-blind-eye-to-nuclear-proliferation.html), accessed December 20, 2008

65 Farr, W.D., op. cit., p. 11

66 Hersh, S., op. cit., pp. 290–291

67 Peter Hounam, “Mordechai Vanunu: The Sunday Times Articles,” April 21, 2004 (http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/article830147.ece), accessed December 20, 2008
68 Ibid., pp. 35–45

69 Ibid, p. 45

70 Hersh, S., op. cit., p. 197

71 Gaffney, M. op. cit., pp. 7–8

72 Eileen Fleming, “The Vanunu Saga 2008,” Counter Currents, January 22, 2008
(http://www.countercurrents.org/fleming220108.htm), accessed December 20, 2008

73 Hounam, P., pp. 189–203

74 US Strategic Bombing Survey, “The Effects of the Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki” (Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1946), pp. 9–14

75 Fredrick Solomon and Robert Q. Marston, The Medical Implications of Nuclear War (Washington, DC: National Academy of Science Press, 1986), pp. 211–213

76 Hersh, S., op. cit., pp. 199–200

77 Ibid., 312

78 John Pike, Israel Special Weapons Guide Website, Federation of American Scientists (http://www.fas.org/nuke/guide/israel/index.html), accessed December 20, 2008. (An invaluable internet resource.)

79 Usi Mahnaimi and Peter Conradi, “Fears of New Arms Race as Israel Tests Cruise Missiles,” Sunday Times, June 18, 2000 (available at: http://www.fas.org/news/israel/e20000619fearsof.htm), accessed December 20, 2008

80 Center for Nonproliferation Studies, “Weapons of Mass Destruction In the Middle East,” 2006 (http://cns.miis.edu/research/wmdme/israel.htm)

81 Ibid.
82 John Pike, “Weapons of Mass Destruction: Jericho 1,” Global Security, 2008
(http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/world/israel/jericho-1.htm), accessed December 20, 2008. (Global Security is the most up-to-date, authoritative source for information about weapons of mass destruction worldwide.)

83 Anthony Cordesman, “Israeli Weapons of Mass Destruction: An Overview” (working draft), Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), 2008
(http://www.csis.org/media/csis/pubs/080602_israeliwmd.pdf), accessed December 20, 2008

84 “Israel Profile: Missile Overview,” Nuclear Threat Initiative
(http://www.nti.org/e_research/profiles/Israel/Missile/index.html), accessed December 20, 2008

85 Serge Schmemann, “Israel Clings to its ‘Nuclear Ambiguity’,” New York Times, June 21, 1998 (http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=Israel+Clings+to+its+‘Nuclear+Ambiguity&btnG=Google+Search), accessed December 20, 2008

86 Mark Wade, “Jericho, 2008” Encyclopedia Astronautica (http://www.astronautix.com/lvfam/jericho.htm), accessed December 20, 2008
 (According to the Encyclopedia Astronautica, much of what we know about Israel’s ballistic missile program has been gleaned from examining the official South African records of its missile program.)

87 Cordesman, A., op. cit., p. 5 (Cordesman is referencing the authoritative Jane’s Intelligence Review)

88 Yaakov Katz, “Israel Test-Fires Long-Range Ballistic Missile,” Jerusalem Post, July 17, 2008 (http://www.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?cid=1200475902683&pagename=JPost%2FJPArticle%2FShowFull), accessed December 20, 2008

89 Michael Barletta and Erik Jorgensen, “Weapons of Mass Destruction In the Middle East,” Center for Non-Proliferation Studies (http://cns.miis.edu/research/wmdme/), accessed December 20, 2008

90 STRATFOR, “Military: A New Ballistic Missile for Israel?” January 17, 2008
(http://www.stratfor.com/analysis/military_new_ballistic_missile_israel), accessed December 20, 2008

91 Barletta, M. and Jorgensen, E., op. cit.

92 John Pike, “Military: F-4E Phantom II,” Global Security, (http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/aircraft/f-4e.htm), accessed December 20, 2008

93 Ibid.

94 Flaherty, T., op. cit.

95 “McDonnell Douglas F4 Phantom,” Israeli Airforce: The Official Website
(http://www.iaf.org.il/Templates/Aircraft/Aircraft.IN.aspx?lang=EN&lobbyID=69&folderID=78&subfolderID=184&docfolderID=184&docID=18176), accessed December 20, 2008

96 Flaherty, T., op. cit.

97 Peter Beaumont, “Was Israeli Raid a Dry Run for an Attack on Iran?” The Observer, September 16, 2007 (http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2007/sep/16/iran.israel), accessed December 20, 2008

98 John Pike, “F-15I Ra’am (Thunder),” Global Security (http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/israel/f-15i.htm), accessed December 20, 2008

99 Ibid.

100 George Friedman, “Mediterranean Flyover: Telegraphing an Israeli Punch,” Jewish World Review, June 25, 2008 (http://www.stratfor.com/weekly/mediterranean_flyover_telegraphing_israeli_punch), accessed December 20, 2008

101 John Pike, “Weapons of Mass Destruction: Dolphin,” Global Security (http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/world/israel/sub.htm), accessed December 20, 2008

102 Nuclear Threat Initiative, “Submarine Proliferation: Israel Current Capabilities, 2008”
(http://www.nti.org/db/submarines/israel/index.html), accessed December 20, 2008)

103 Uzi Mahnaimi and Matthew Campbell, “Israel Makes Waves With Submarine Missile Test,” Sunday Times, June 18, 2000 (available at: http://www.fas.org/news/israel/e20000619israelmakes.htm), accessed December 20, 2008)

104 Pike, J. op. cit.

105 Marineforce International, “Submarines: Dolphin” (http://www.marineforce.net/dolphin.html), accessed December 20, 2008

106 Jim Dunnigan, “Israel Gets Super Subs,” Strategy Page, August 27, 2006 (http://www.strategypage.com/htmw/htsub/articles/20060827.aspx), accessed December 20, 2008

107 “SSK Dolphin Class Submarine, Israel, 2008,” Naval-Technology.com
(http://www.naval-technology.com/projects/dolphin/), accessed December 20, 2008

108 Pike, J. op. cit.

109 Cirincione, J., et al., op. cit., p. 261

110 Usi Mahnaimi, “Israeli Jets Equipped for Chemical Warfare,” Sunday Times, October 4, 1998 (article posted on the MER website at: http://www.middleeast.org/archives/1998_11_08.htm), accessed December 20, 2008

111 Avner Cohen, “Israel and Chemical/Biological Weapons: History, Deterrence, and Arms Control,” The Nonproliferation Review, Fall–Winter 2001 (http://www.vho.org/aaargh/fran/livres3/Cohen.pdf), accessed December 20, 2008

112 “Israel Profile: Chemical Overview,” Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI) 2008 (http://www.nti.org/e_research/profiles/Israel/Chemical/index.html)
 
113 “Israel Profile: Biological Overview,” Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI) 2008 (http://www.nti.org/e_research/profiles/Israel/Biological/index.html), accessed December 20, 2008

114 “Strategic Israel: The Secret Arsenal of the Jewish State,” MSNBC (http://www.sweetliberty.org/issues/israel/strategic/index.shtml), accessed December 20, 2008. (A remarkable interactive map of Israel’s nuclear facilities. No longer stored at the MSNBC website, it is archived at the Sweet Liberty site.)

115 John Pike, “Special weapons Facilities: Israel,” Global Security (http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/world/israel/facility.htm), accessed December 20, 2008

116 Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI), “Israel Nuclear Facilities” (http://www.nti.org/e_research/profiles/Israel/Nuclear/3583.html), accessed December 20, 2008

117 Greenpeace International, “An Overview of Nuclear Facilities In Iran, Israel and Turkey,” February, 2007 (http://www.greenpeace.org/raw/content/mediterranean/reports/an-overview-of-nuclear-facilit.pdf), accessed December 20, 2008. (Greenpeace issues the following disclaimer: “Due to the highly secretive nature of the Israeli nuclear programme and the complete lack of official information, the chapter on Israeli nuclear facilities was written based upon the best available informative yet unofficial sources” — this disclaimer doesn’t apply to Turkey or Iran.)

118 Pike, J., Special weapons Facilities-Israel, op. cit.

119 Ibid.

120 Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, “Israel: Nuclear Infrastructure,” 1998 (http://www.carnegieendowment.org/files/Tracking_israelmap.pdf), accessed December 20, 2008

121 Greenpeace International, op. cit.

122 Michael Adler, “Israel’s Soreq Nuclear Reactor: The One They Show to Journalists,” Agence France Press, July 18, 2004 (available at: http://www.globalsecurity.org/org/news/2004/040718-israel-soreq.htm), accessed December 20, 2008

123 John Pike, “Soreq Nuclear Research Center,” Global Security (http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/world/israel/soreq.htm), accessed December 20, 2008

124 Yael Ivri-Darel, “Soreq Nuclear Research Center’s Reactor to Shut Down in 8 Years,” Ynetnews, April 3, 2008 (http://www.ynet.co.il/english/articles/0,7340,L-3514334,00.html), accessed December 20, 2008

125 Peter Hounam, “Revealed: The Secrets of Israel’s Nuclear Arsenal / Atomic Technician Mordechai Vanunu Reveals Secret Weapons Production,” Sunday Times, October 5, 1986 (http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/article830147.ece), accessed December 20, 2008

126 John Pike, “Dimona Negev Nuclear Research Center,” Global Security, 2008 (http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/world/israel/dimona.htm), accessed December 20, 2008

127 John Pike, “Negev Nuclear Research Center,” Global Security (http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/world/israel/dimona.htm), accessed December 20, 2008

128 “Israel Reviews its Nuclear Deterrent,” Jane’s Intelligence Review, November 1, 1998 (http://www.jane’s.com/extract/jir98/jir00807.html), accessed December 20, 2008

129 Brian Whitaker and Richard Norton-Taylor, “Revealed: Israel’s Nuclear Site,” The Guardian, August 23, 2000 (http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2000/aug/23/news.israel), accessed December 20, 2008

130 John Pike, “Plutonium Production,” Global Security, 2008 (http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/intro/pu-prod.htm), accessed December 20, 2008

131 Arjun Makhijani, Howard Hu and Katherine Yih (eds), Nuclear Wastelands: A Global Guide to Nuclear Weapons Production and Its Health & Environmental Effects (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2000). To date, the most comprehensive and authoritative overview of the environmental and health consequences of nuclear weapons production.

132 Jonathon Broder, “A Challenge To Israel’s Nuclear Blind Spot,” The Washington Post, Sunday, March 11, 2001; Page B02
(http://www.bsos.umd.edu/pgsd/people/staffpubs/Avner-WashPost3-11-01.htm), accessed December 20, 2008

133 Bennett Ramberg, “Should Israel Close Dimona? The Radiological Consequences of a Military Strike on Israel’s Plutonium-Production Reactor,” Arms Control Today, May 2008 (http://www.armscontrol.org/act/2008_05/Dimona), accessed December 20, 2008

134 “Israel Reviews Its Nuclear Deterrent,” Jane’s Intelligence Review, November 1, 1998 (http://www.jane’s.com/extract/jir98/jir00807.html), accessed December 20, 2008

135 Arabs Against Discrimination, “Employees at Nuclear Reactors Demand Compensation,” April 17, 2005 (http://www.aad-online.org/2005/English/8-August/13-18/13-8/aad20/1.htm), accessed December 20, 2008

136 Liat Collins, “Family of Nuclear Cancer Victim Awarded NIS 2.5m,” Jerusalem Post, October 13, 1997 (http://nuclearweaponarchive.org/Israel/Dimonanews.txt), accessed December 20, 2008

137 Rayna Moss, “Israel: Dimona Death Factory Exposed,” WISE Nuclear Monitor, February 1, 2002, (http://www10.antenna.nl/wise/index.html?http://www10.antenna.nl/wise/beyondbomb/3-3.html), accessed December 20, 2008

138 Palestinian National Authority (PNA), “Dimona Reactor … a Mystery Threatening Middle East,” PNA Press Release, Thursday, September 18, 2003 (http://www.scoop.co.nz/stories/WO0309/S00228.htm), accessed December 20, 2008

139 “Jordanian Fears over Israeli Dimona Nuclear Reactor,” Arabic News April 28, 2005 (http://www.arabicnews.com/ansub/Daily/Day/050428/2005042832.html), accessed December 20, 2008

140 Ibid.

141 Yuval Azoulay, “Deputy CEO of Negev Nuclear Center: Dimona Reactor is Safe,” Haaretz, August 23, 2007 (http://www.haaretz.co.il/hasen/spages/896676.html), accessed December 20, 2008

142 “Israel Reviews Its Nuclear Deterrent,” op. cit.

143 “Sunday Times: Close Dimona nuclear facility,” IsraelWire, February 7, 2000 (http://www.fas.org/news/israel/000207-israel1.htm), accessed December 20, 2008

144 Aluf Benn, “Israel: Censoring the Past,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, July/August 2001 (http://www.bsos.umd.edu/pgsd/people/staffpubs/Avner-BASreport7-01.htm),  accessed December 20, 2008

145 BBC World Service, BBC Transcript of “Israel’s Secret Weapon, Electric Intifada,” March 17, 2003 (http://electronicintifada.net/v2/article1665.shtml), accessed December 20, 2008

146 Ibid.

147 Ibid.

148 Cirincione, J., et al., p. 265

149 Cohen, A., 1998, op. cit., pp. 12–14

150 Israel Shahak, Open Secrets: Israeli Nuclear and Foreign Policies (London: Pluto Press, 1997), p. 40. (For many years Shahak translated news from the Hebrew Language press. This volume contains many such examples.)

151 Hersh, S., op. cit., p. 319

152 Gaffney, M., op. cit., p. 163

153 C.R. Jayachandran, “Pak Fears Joint Indo-Israel Strikes,” Times of India, October 14, 2003 (http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/232733.cms), accessed December 20, 2008

154 “History of Lebanon,” Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Lebanon#Israeli_invasion_and_international_intervention:_1982.E2.80.9384), accessed December 20, 2008

155 Chris Hedges, “Israel’s ‘Crime Against Humanity’,” TruthDig.com, December 15,  2008 (http://www.truthdig.com/report/item/20081215_israels_crime_against_humanity/), accessed December 20, 2008. (In December, 2008, Israel denied entry to the Occupied Territories to Professor Falk.)

156 James A. Russell, “Nuclear Strategy and the Modern Middle East,” Middle East Council Journal, Fall 2004 (http://www.mepc.org/journal_vol11/0409_russell.asp), accessed December 20, 2008

157 Ibid.

158 Gaffney, M., op. cit., p. 131

159 Avner Cohen, “Did Nukes Nudge the PLO?” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, December, 1993, pp. 11–13

160 Robert W. Tucker, “Israel & the US: From Dependence to Nuclear Weapons?” Commentary, November 1975, pp. 41–42 (http://www.commentarymagazine.com/viewarticle.cfm/israel-and-the-united-states-from-dependence-to-nuclear-weapons-5582), accessed December 20, 2008

161 Ibid.

162 Wisconsin Project On Nuclear Arms Control, “Israel’s Nuclear Weapon Capability: An Overview,” The Risk Report, July-August 1996 (http://www.wisconsinproject.org/countries/israel/nuke.html), accessed December 20, 2008

163 Gaffney, M. op. cit., p. 147

164 Ibid., p. 153

165 “Israel–United States Military Relations,” Wikipedia, December 10, 2008 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Israel-United_States_military_relations), accessed December 20, 2008

166 Shahak, I., op. cit., pp. 39–40

167 Ido Kanter, “Changing Nuclear Equation: Should Nuclear Arms be used in Response to Powerful Conventional Attacks?” Israel Opinion, September 4, 2006 (http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3299440,00.html), accessed December 20, 2008

168 Hersh, S., op. cit., p. 19

169 Aronson, Geoffrey, “Hidden Agenda: US-Israeli Relations and the Nuclear Question,” Middle East Journal (Autumn 1992), pp. 619–630 (http://www.mideasti.org/middle-east-journal/volume-46/4/hidden-agenda-us-israeli-relations-and-nuclear-question), accessed December 20, 2008

170 Jonathan Schell and Martin Sherwin, “Israel, Iran and the Bomb,” The Nation, August 8, 2008 (http://www.thenation.com/doc/20080818/schell_sherwin), accessed December 20, 2008

171 Shahak, I., op. cit., p. 150

172 Norman Soloman, “Israel’s Future Leader? (Benjamin Netanyahu)” Alternet, January 6, 2006 (http://www.thirdworldtraveler.com/Israel/Benjamin_Netanyahu.html), accessed December 20, 2008

173 Hersh, S., op. cit., p. 319

174 Ibid., p. 153

175 Ibid., pp. 285–305

176 John Pike, “Israel: Strategic Doctrine,” Global Security (http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/world/israel/doctrine.htm), accessed December 20, 2008

177 Gaffney, M. op. cit., p. 194

178 Shai Feldman, Nuclear Weapons and Arms Control in the Middle East (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1997), pp. 243–244; emphasis in original

179 Avner Cohen and Marvin Miller, “Country Perspectives on the Challenges to a Fissile Material (Cutoff) Treaty,” International Panel on Fissile Materials, Israel, 2008, pp. 27–34 (http://www.ipfmlibrary.org/gfmr08cv.pdf), accessed December 20, 2008

180 Yossi Melman, “Report suggests Obama Press Israel Over Nuke Program,” Haaretz, November 17, 2008 (http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/1037558.html), accessed December 20, 2008

181 Ibid., p. 149

182 Feldman, S., pp. 245–248

183 Greenpeace Briefing, “Conditions for a Nuclear Free Middle East,” February, 2007 (http://www.greenpeace.org/raw/content/mediterranean/reports/conditions-for-NFME.pdf), accessed December 20, 2008

184 Zeev Maoz, “The Mixed Blessing of Israel’s Nuclear Policy,” International Security, vol. 28, no. 2, Fall 2003, pp. 44–77 (http://belfercenter.ksg.harvard.edu/files/maoz.pdf), accessed December 20, 2008

185 Michael Donovan, “Iran, Israel and Nuclear Weapons in the Middle East,” Center for Defense Information Terrorism Project, February 14, 2002 (http://www.cdi.org/terrorism/menukes.cfm), accessed December 20, 2008

186 Shahak, I., op. cit., p. 34

187 “United Nations Security Resolution 487,” The Avalon Project, Yale Law School, (http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/un/un487.htm), accessed December 20, 2008

188 Richard Beeston, “Six Arab States Join Rush to Go Nuclear,” TimesOnline, November 6, 2006 (http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/middle_east/article624855.ece), accessed December 20, 2008

189 Dominic Moran, “Israel Mulls Open Nuke Program,” Security Watch, August 3, 2007, (http://www.isn.ethz.ch/isn/Current-Affairs/Security-Watch/Detail/?ots591=4888CAA0-B3DB-1461-98B9-E20E7B9C13D4&lng=en&id=53614), Accessed March 10, 2009

190 “Arab League Vows to Drop Out of NPT if Israel Admits It has Nuclear Weapons,” AP Wire, March 5, 2008 (http://www.2020visioncampaign.org/pages/351/Arab_League_vows_to_drop_out_of_NPT_if_Israel_admits_it_has_nuclear_weapons), accessed December 20, 2008

191 International Pugwash, “A Middle East Weapons of Mass Destruction Free Zone,” Pugwash Online, June, 2008 (http://www.pugwash.org/reports/rc/me/middle-east-WMDFZ.htm), accessed December 20, 2008

192 Haider Rizvi, “Israeli Arsenal Vexes Nuclear Negotiators,” Inter Press Service, Inter Press Service, May 20, 2005 (http://www.antiwar.com/ips/rizvi.php?articleid=6033), accessed December 20, 2008

193 Maoz, Z., op. cit.

194 Ibid.

195 Glen Kessler, “In 2003, U.S. Spurned Iran’s Offer of Dialogue: Some Officials Lament Lost Opportunity,” Washington Post, June 18, 2006, A-16 (http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpdyn/content/article/2006/06/17/AR2006061700727.html), accessed December 20, 2008

196 Gareth Porter, “Iran Proposal to US Offered Peace with Israel,” Inter Press Service, May 24, 2006 (http://ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=33348), accessed December 20, 2008

197 Gershom Gorenberg and Hiam Watzman, “Is Hamas Looking For a Two-State Solution? Should We Listen?” South Jerusalem, April 10, 2008 (http://southjerusalem.wordpress.com/2008/04/10/is-hamas-looking-for-a-two-state-solution-should-we-listen/), accessed December 20, 2008

198 Yossi Verter, “Poll: Most Israelis Back Direct Talks with Hamas on Shalit,” Haaretz, February 27, 2008 (http://haaretz.com/hasen/spages/958473.html), accessed December 20, 2008

199 Barak Ravid, Aluf Benn and Assaf Uni, “Israel, PA Agree to Strive for Deal by End of 2008,” Haaretz, November 27, 2007 (http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/pages/ShArt.jhtml?itemNo=928637), accessed December 20, 2008

200 Tom Allard, “Israeli Nukes A Key to Peace,” The Sydney Morning Herald, November 9, 2004 (http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2004/11/08/1099781324113.html?from=storylhs), accessed December 20, 2008

201 Andrew Tulley, “Radio Free Europe US: Bush Signals New Interpretation of Nonproliferation Treaty,” Radio Free Europe US, March 16, 2005
(http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/library/news/usa/2005/usa-050316-rferl01.htm), accessed December 20, 2008

202 Bernd Debusmann, “Can Obama Avert an Arab-Israeli Disaster?” Reuters, December 11, 2008 (http://blogs.reuters.com/great-debate/2008/12/11/can-obama-avert-an-arab-israeli-disaster/), accessed December 20, 2008

203 Lily Galili, Netanyahu, Yisrael Beiteinu strike deal, Lieberman to get Foreign Ministry, Haaretz.com, March 9, 2009 (http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/1069317.html) Accessed March 9, 2009

204 “Arab Stocks Volatile on Falling Oil Prices, Global Uncertainty,” Business News, Duetsche Presse-Agenteur, November 28, 2008 (http://www.monstersandcritics.com/news/business/news/article_1445534.php), accessed December 20, 2008

205 Rebecca Johnson, “Is the NPT Being Overtaken by Events?” Disarmament Diplomacy, Spring 2008 (http://www.acronym.org.uk/dd/dd87/87npt.htm), accessed December 20, 2008

206 Pincus, W., op. cit.

207 “UAE Calls for a Nuclear-Free World,” Bahrain News Agency, May 4, 2005 (http://english.bna.bh/?ID=31216), accessed December 20, 2008

208 Amy Goodman and Juan Gonzalez, “Former Chief UN Weapons Inspector Hans Blix on the US Rush to War in Iraq, the Threat of an Attack on Iran, and the Need for a Global Nuclear Ban to Avoid Further Catastrophe,” Democracy Now, May 21, 2008 (http://www.democracynow.org/2008/5/21/former_chief_un_weapons_inspector_hans), accessed December 20, 2008