prohibits states parties to transfer nuclear material, unless it serves peaceful purposes and is subject to International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards. The emergence of nuclear black markets has called into question the effectiveness of export controls. At the 2005 NPT Review Conference, attempts were made to tie export controls into the broader problem of nuclear proliferation and subsequently, to strengthen export controls. However, a number of states belonging to the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) heavily criticize export controls citing their inalienable right to the peaceful use of nuclear energy provided for under Article IV of the NPT.
Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG)
The Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) is a voluntary group of 44 supplier countries who contribute to the nonproliferation of nuclear weapons by restricting nuclear trade for peaceful purposes . Since its creation in 1975, NSG has designed and implemented two guidelines for nuclear exports and nuclear related exports, including dual-use items.
The NSG Guidelines are implemented by each participating government in accordance with its national laws and practices . Decisions on export applications are taken at the national level in accordance with national export licensing requirements.
The Zangger Committee was formed in 1971 to draft a “trigger list” of special fissionable materials, and equipment or materials especially designed or prepared for the processing, use, or production of special fissionable materials. The trigger list establishes non-binding, voluntary guidelines on conditions of supply of fissile material.
The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls for Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies comprises 33 member states that voluntarily adhere to strict export control regulations . The purpose of the Wassenaar Arrangement is to support national export control laws to prevent the proliferation of nuclear dual-use technologies.