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Sir James Chadwick

James Chadwick was born on 20 October 1891 in Cheshire, England. He attended Manchester University Honours School of Physics and graduated in 1911. While working on his Master's degree, Chadwick took a job in the Physical laboratory in Manchester where he studied with Professor Ernest Rutherford. In 1913, Chadwick received his Master's degree and received the 1851 Exhibition Scholarship, allowing him to continue his research and move to Berlin to work with Professor Hans Geiger. He later returned to England and was granted the Wollaston Scholarship at Gonville and Cains College in Cambridge, where he resumed working on atomic studies with Rutherford.

In 1932, Chadwick proved the existence of neutrons. This momentous discovery contributed to

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the successful controlled fissioning of Uranium-235, and eventually to the development of the atomic bomb. For his discovery, Chadwick received the 1932 Hughes Medal of the Royal Society. In 1935, Chadwick was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics. King George VI knighted him Sir James in 1945. From 1943 to 1946, Chadwick was the Head of the British Mission collaborating with the Manhattan Project in Los Alamos. Chadwick became a leading advocate for developing the atomic bomb in Britain and was the predominant scientist associated with the effort.

Chadwick returned to Cambridge in 1948 and served as Master of Gonville and Caius College until he retired in 1959. He acted as a part-time member of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority from 1957 to 1962. Sir James Chadwick died in 1974.