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  :: Treaties Treaty on Undergorund Explosions for Peaceful Purposes, Protocol Section V

Section V. Hydrodynamic Yield Measurement Method

1. The hydrodynamic measurement zone for each explosive means a cylindrical region coaxial with the emplacement hole of that explosive. This region extends in the direction of the entrance to the emplacement hole from the midpoint of the canister containing that explosive to the point at which the axis of the emplacement hole intersects a spherical surface whose radius, measured

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from the midpoint of the canister containing the explosive, is equal in meters to 10 times the cube root of the planned yield in kilotons of that explosive, or 25 meters, whichever is greater. The length of this region in the opposite direction from the same midpoint of the canister is equal in meters to three times the cube root of the planned yield in kilotons of that explosive, or 7.5 meters, whichever is greater. The radius of this region is equal in meters to three times the cube root of the planned yield in kilotons of that explosive, or 7.5 meters, whichever is greater.

2. For hydrodynamic yield measurement the following procedures shall apply:

(a) Designated Personnel shall emplace, for each explosive, the equipment specified in paragraph 5(a) of Section VIII of this Protocol in the same emplacement hole as the explosive. The equipment specified in paragraphs 5(a) and 5(b) of Section VIII of this Protocol shall be installed, in accordance with installation instructions provided in accordance with paragraph 8(a)(i) of Section VIII of this Protocol, by Designated Personnel under observation of personnel of the Party carrying out the explosion and with their assistance, if Designated Personnel have requested such assistance. The location of each recording facility and the command and monitoring facility of the Verifying Party shall be determined by agreement of the Parties with respect to each particular explosion. This equipment shall be operated by Designated Personnel;

(b) for each explosive, the equipment specified in paragraph 5(a) of Section VIII of this Protocol shall be installed so that the end point of the equipment farthest from the emplacement hole entrance is three meters from the surface of the explosive canister closest to the emplacement hole entrance as measured along the axis of the emplacement hole. The location of this equipment relative to the axis of the emplacement hole shall be agreed upon by the Parties. No more than six sensor channels shall be installed for each explosive. Each Party shall make documented records of measured distances to the sensors. These records shall be exchanged by the Parties;

(c) explosive canisters with a length greater than 10 meters or a diameter greater than three meters shall be used only if prior agreement has been reached between the Parties establishing, in each specific case, provisions for their use; and

(d) the Party carrying out the explosion shall fill all voids other than the explosive canister within the hydrodynamic measurement zone of each explosive in each emplacement hole with stemming material. This stemming material, beginning no more than three meters from each explosive canister cover towards the entrance of the hole, and proceeding in that direction, shall have a bulk density no less than 70 percent of the average density of the surrounding rock. An alternate stemming material may be used for filling the remainder of the hydrodynamic measurement zone of that explosive. For any explosive emplaced in an emplacement hole whose diameter is less than 30 centimeters and emplaced at a distance of more than 1.5 kilometers from the entrance of the hole, an alternate stemming material may be used for filling the entire hydrodynamic measurement zone of that explosive. If more than one explosive is emplaced in a single emplacement hole, the Parties shall agree upon an alternate stemming material for filling the entire hydrodynamic measurement zone of each explosive other than the explosive nearest the entrance of the emplacement hole if the emplacement hole diameter is greater than 30 centimeters but less than 60 centimeters. Any alternate stemming material shall have a bulk density no less than 1.2 grams per cubic centimeter. Pipes located within the hydrodynamic measurement zone need not be filled with stemming material if they have a cross-sectional area less than 10 square centimeters, or if they have a cross-sectional area less than 100 square centimeters and a length less than one meter. Costs incurred by the party carrying out the explosion to ensure, within the hydrodynamic measurement zone, a density of stemming material no less than 70 percent of the average density of the surrounding rock shall be borne by the Verifying Party.

3. For a group explosion the Party carrying out the explosion shall ensure that the emplacement point of each explosive canister, the detonation sequence, and the time intervals between individual explosions are such that no explosion in the group shall interfere with the hydrodynamic yield measurement of an other individual explosion. With the exception of group explosions provided or in paragraph 2 of Section II of this Protocol, if the technological characteristics of the project of which the group explosion is a part make it impossible to satisfy this requirement, the Parties, prior to the beginning of emplacement of explosives, shall agree upon alternative hydrodynamic or other verification procedures.

4. In preparation for the use of the hydrodynamic yield measurement method, the Verifying Party shall have the right to confirm the validity of the geological and geophysical information provided in accordance with Section IV of this Protocol, in accordance with the following procedures:

(a) Designated Personnel may analyze relevant studies and measurement data, including logging data, of the Party carrying out the explosion, the core samples or rock fragments extracted from each emplacement hole within the hydrodynamic measurement zone, as well as any logging data and core samples from existing exploratory holes, which shall be provided to Designated Personnel upon their arrival at the explosion site, if the Party carrying out the explosion carried out relevant studies, measurements, and coring; and

(b) Designated Personnel shall have the right to observe logging and the extraction of core samples or rock fragments from locations agreed upon by the Parties within the hydrodynamic measurement zone in the emplacement hole or from an exploratory hole at depth intervals agreed upon by the Parties. Any such exploratory hole shall be no farther from the emplacement hole than a distance in meters of 10 times the cube root of the planned yield in kilotons of the emplaced explosive; or

(c) if the Party carrying out the explosion does not take core samples or rock fragments in accordance with subparagraph (b) of this paragraph or does not drill an exploratory hole meeting the requirements specified in subparagraph (b) of this paragraph, the Verifying Party shall have the right to extract sidewall rock samples from the emplacement hole with its own equipment, to drill such an exploratory hole, and to core this hole. Such operations shall be conducted in the presence of personnel of the Party carrying out the explosion. Such an exploratory hole shall be stemmed by the Party carrying out the explosion, at the expense of the Verifying Party; and

(d) Designated Personnel shall have the right to examine and remove from the territory of the Party carrying out the explosion logging data, core samples, sidewall rock samples, and rock fragments referred to in subparagraphs (a), (b), and (c) of this paragraph, as selected by Designated Personnel.

5. While using the hydrodynamic yield measurement method, Designated Personnel shall have the right:

(a) to confirm by direct measurement the validity of the information provided in accordance with paragraphs 6(f), 6(g), and 6(h) of Section IV of this Protocol;

(b) to confirm the validity of the information provided in accordance with paragraph 6(i) of Section IV of this Protocol, and to receive, upon request, a sample of each batch of stemming material as this material is placed in the emplacement hole within the hydrodynamic measurement zone; and

(c) to confirm the validity of the information provided in accordance with paragraphs 6(b) and 6(j) of Section IV of this Protocol, by observing, upon request, relevant field measurements being made by the Party carrying out the explosion if such measurements are made by the Party carrying out the explosion, and by making field measurements with its own logging equipment, to include determination of the location and configuration of any voids within each hydrodynamic measurement zone or, at the option of the Verifying Party under leasing conditions, with the logging equipment of the Party carrying out the explosion, if the Party carrying out the explosion has such equipment. Such field measurements shall be made in the presence of personnel of both Parties. All of the data produced by either Party, including calibration data, shall be duplicated, and one copy of the data shall be provided to each Party. Calibration data for the equipment shall include information to confirm the sensitivity of the equipment under the conditions in which it is utilized for this explosion.

6. Designated Personnel shall have the right:

(a) to have access to the site of the explosion and to facilities and structures related to the conduct of the explosion, along agreed routes;

(b) to observe the emplacement of each explosive canister, to confirm, by direct measurement, the depth of emplacement of each explosive canister and, for explosives in a group, the relative location of their points of emplacement, and to observe the stemming of each emplacement hole;

(c) to have access to their equipment associated with the use of the hydrodynamic yield measurement method from commencement of its use by Designated Personnel at the explosion site until the departure of all personnel from the explosion area prior to the explosion;

(d) to unimpeded visual observation of the entrance area to each emplacement hole at any time from the moment of emplacement of each explosive until the departure of all personnel from the explosion area prior to the explosion;

(e) to observe remotely by means of closed-circuit television equipment their hydrodynamic yield measurement equipment specified in paragraphs 5(b) and 5(c) of Section VIII of this Protocol;

(f) to observe the explosion; and

(g) to monitor electrically the integrity and performance of their equipment in each recording facility from the command and monitoring facility, to transmit the hydrodynamic yield measurement data from each recording facility to the command and monitoring facility, and to transmit the commands required for operation of each recording facility from the command and monitoring facility to each recording facility.

7. The Party carrying out the explosion shall produce, at the request of the Verifying Party, a timing reference command signal to each recording facility at two minutes, plus or minus 100 milliseconds, before the moment of the explosion, or before the first explosion in a group, and a zero-time reference signal to each corresponding recording facility for each explosion, with an accuracy of plus or minus one microsecond. The parameters for these signals, produced by the Party carrying out the explosion, and procedures for their transmission and reception shall be agreed upon by the Parties. At the Verifying Party's option, it shall have the right to generate a timing reference signal for each explosion, using the electromagnetic pulse from its hydrodynamic measurement cables. These timing reference signals shall be transmitted, used, and recorded by the Verifying Party without intervention by the Party carrying out the explosion.

8. Designated Personnel shall have the right to acquire photographs taken by the Party carrying out the explosion, with photographic cameras provided by the Verifying Party, under the following conditions:

(a) the Party carrying out the explosion shall identify those of its personnel who will take photographs;

(b) photographs shall be taken as requested by, and in the presence of, Designated Personnel. If requested by Designated Personnel, such photographs shall show the size of an object by placing a measuring scale, provided by the Verifying Party, alongside that object during the photographing;

(c) Designated Personnel shall determine whether photographs conform to those requested and, if not, repeat photographs shall be taken; and

(d) before completion of any photographed operation related to emplacement, and prior to the time at which an object being photographed becomes permanently hidden from view, Designated Personnel shall determine whether requested photographs are adequate. If they are not adequate, before the operation shall proceed, additional photographs shall be taken until the Designated Personnel determine that the photographs of that operation are adequate. This photographic process shall be carried out as expeditiously as possible, and in no case shall the cumulative delay resulting from this process exceed two hours for each emplacement operation, unless the Parties otherwise agree.

9. Designated Personnel shall have the right to obtain photographs of the following:

(a) the exterior of installations and structures associated with the conduct of the explosion;

(b) the emplacement of each explosive canister and stemming of each emplacement hole as specified in paragraph 6(b) of this Section;

(c) geological samples used for confirming the validity of geological and geophysical information as provided for in paragraph 4 of this Section, and equipment used in obtaining such samples;

(d) emplacement and installation of hydrodynamic yield measurement method equipment and cables associated with it;

(e) containers, facilities and structures for storing and operating the equipment used by Designated Personnel; and

(f) with the agreement of the Party carrying out the explosion, other activities of Designated Personnel directly related to the use of the hydrodynamic yield measurement method.

10. Equipment identified by the Party carrying out the explosion, in accordance with paragraph 8(h) of Section VIII of this Protocol, as unacceptable for use at the time of the explosion shall be sealed by both Parties and placed in the custody of the Party carrying out the explosion at a time agreed upon by the Party carrying out the explosion and by Designated Personnel.

11. Two individuals from the Party carrying out the explosion shall have the right to join Designated Personnel in the command and monitoring facility at the time of the explosion, to observe command and monitoring of the recording equipment and acquisition and duplication of data transmitted from each recording facility, and to receive a copy of the data. Designated Personnel, in the presence of personnel of the Party carrying out the explosion, shall recover all recordings of data taken at the time of the explosion and prepare two identical copies of such data. Personnel of the Party carrying out the explosion shall select one of the two identical copies by lot, and Designated Personnel shall retain the other copy. Designated Personnel shall retain no other such data, and shall have no further access to their recording facilities, their command and monitoring facility, and their equipment until these are returned to the Verifying Party, in accordance with paragraph 11 of Section VIII of this Protocol, unless the Parties otherwise agree, in which case access of the Designated Personnel to their recording facilities, their command and monitoring facility, and their equipment shall be under the observation of personnel of the Party carrying out the explosion. Designated Personnel shall provide the Party carrying out the explosion with information on sensor location in relation to the explosive canister. With respect to digital recording of signals, the Verifying Party shall provide a description of the recording format and a sample of the computer program for reading digital data. The program shall be provided by Designated Personnel upon their arrival at the point of entry.

12. Designated Personnel shall not be present in areas from which all personnel of the Party carrying out the explosion have been withdrawn in connection with carrying out an explosion, but shall have the right to reenter those areas at the same time as personnel of the Party carrying out the explosion.

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