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  LIbrary Treaties Underground Test Ban, Protocol Section I, December 11, 1990

Protocol to the Treaty Between
the USA and USSR on the Limitation
of Underground Nuclear Weapon Tests

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13 ILM 906
entered into force
December 11, 1990

The United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, hereinafter referred to as the Parties,

Have agreed to limit underground nuclear weapon tests,

Have agreed as follows:

1. For the Purpose of ensuring verification of compliance with the obligations of the Parties under the Treaty by national technical means, the Parties shall on the basis of reciprocity, exchange the following data:

a. The geographic coordinates of the boundaries of each test site and of the boundaries of the geophysically distinct testing areas therein.

b. Information on the geology of the testing areas of the sites (the rock characteristics of geological formations and the basic physical properties of the rock, i.e., density, seismic velocity, water saturation, porosity and depth of water table).

c. The geographic coordinates of underground nuclear weapon tests, after they have been conducted.

d. Yield, date, time, depth and coordinates for two nuclear weapon tests for calibration purposes from each geophysically distinct testing area where underground nuclear weapon tests have been and are to be conducted. In this connection the yield of such explosions for calibration purposes should be as near as possible to the limit defined in Article I of the Treaty and not less than one-tenth of that limit. In the case of testing areas where data are not available on two tests for calibration purposes, the data pertaining to one such test shall be exchanged, if available, and the data pertaining to the second test shall be exchanged as soon as possible after the second test hav-ing a yield in the above-mentioned range. The provision of this Protocol shall not require the Parties to conduct tests solely for calibration purposes.

2. The Parties agree that the exchange of data pursuant to subparagraphs a, b, and d of paragraph 1 shall be carried out simultaneously with the exchange of instruments of ratification of the Treaty, as provided in Article VI of the Treaty, having in mind that the Parties shall, on the basis of reci-procity, afford each other the opportunity to familiarize themselves with these data before the exchange of instruments of ratification.

3. Should a Party specify a new test site or testing area after the entry into force of the Treaty, the data called for by subparagraphs a and b of paragraph I shall be transmitted to the other Party in advance of use of that site or area. The data called for be subparagraph d of paragraph I shall also be transmitted in advance of use of that site or area if they are available; if they are not available, they shall be transmitted as soon as possible after they have been obtained by the transmitting Party.

4. The Parties agree that the test sites of each Party shall be located at places under its jurisdiction or control and that all nuclear weapon tests shall be conducted solely within the testing areas specified in accordance with paragraph 1.

For the purposes of the Treaty, all underground nuclear explosions at the specified test sites shall be considered nuclear weapon tests and shall be subject to all the provisions of the Treaty relating to nuclear weapon tests. The provisions of Article III of the Treaty apply to all underground nuclear explosions conducted outside of the specified test sites, and only to such explosions.

This Protocol shall be considered an integral part of the Treaty.
Done at Moscow on July 3, 1974.

For the United States of America:
RICHARD NIXON
The President of the United States of America.

For the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics:
L. I. BREZHNEV
General Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU

The United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, herein-after referred to as the Parties,

Confirming the provisions of the Treaty Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Limitation of Underground Nuclear Weapon Tests of July 3, 1974, hereinafter referred to as the Treaty.,

Convinced of the necessity to ensure effective verification of compliance with the Treaty,

Have agreed as follows:

Section I. Definitions

For the purposes of this Protocol:

1. The term 'test site' means a geographical area for the conduct of underground nuclear weapon tests, specified in paragraph 1 or in accordance with paragraph 2 of Section II of this Protocol.

2. The term "underground nuclear weapon test," hereinafter "test," means either a single underground nuclear explosion conducted at a test site, or two or more underground nuclear explosions conducted at a test site within an area delineated by a circle having a diameter of two kilometers and conducted within a total period of time of 0. 1 second. The yield of a test shall be the aggregate yield of all explosions in the test.

3. The term "explosion" means the release of nuclear energy from an explosive canister.

4. The term "explosive canister" means, with respect to every explosion, the container or covering for one or more nuclear explosives.

5. The term "Testing Party" means the Party conducting a test.

6. The term "Verifying Party" means the Party entitled to carry out, in accordance with this Protocol, activities related to verification of compliance with the Treaty by the Testing Party.

7. The term "Designated Personnel "means personnel appointed by the Verifying Party from among its nationals and included on its list of Designated Personnel, in accordance with Section IX of this Protocol, to carry out activities related to verification in accordance with this Protocol in the territory of the Testing Party.

8. The term "Transport Personnel" means personnel appointed by the Verifying Party from among its nationals and included on its list of Transport Personnel, in accordance with Section IX of this Protocol, to provide transportation for Designated Personnel, their baggage, and equipment of the Verifying Party between the territory of the Verifying Party and the point of entry in the territory of the Testing Party.

9. The term 'point of entry" means Washington, D.C. (Dulles International Airport), for Designated Personnel and Transport Personnel, and Travis Air Force Base, California, for Designated Personnel and Transport Personnel and for equipment specified in Section VIII of this Protocol, with respect to the United States of America; and Moscow (Sheremetyevo-2 International Airport) for Designated Personnel and Transport Personnel and for equipment specified in Section VIII of this Protocol, and Leningrad (Pulkovo-2 International Airport) for Designated Personnel and Transport Personnel, with respect to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Other locations may serve as points of entry for specific tests, as agreed by the Parties.

10. The term "hydrodynamic yield measurement method" means the method whereby the yield of a test is derived from on-site, direct measurement of the properties of the shock wave as a function of time during the hydrodynamic phase of the ground motion produced by the test.

11. The term "seismic yield measurement method "means the method whereby the yield of a test is derived from measurement of parameters of elastic ground motion produced by the test.

12. The term 'on-site inspection" means activities carried out by the Verifying Party at the test site of the Testing Party, in accordance with Section VII of this Protocol, for the purposes of independently obtaining data on conditions under which the test will be conducted and for confirming the validity of data provided by the Testing Party.

13. The term "emplacement hole" means any drill-hole, shaft, adit or tunnel in which one or more explosive canisters, associated cables, and other equipment are installed for the purposes of conducting a test.

14. The term "end of the emplacement hole" means the reference point established by the Testing Party beyond the planned location of each explosive canister along the axis of the emplacement hole.

15. The term "satellite hole" means any drill-hole, shaft, adit or tunnel in which sensing elements and cables and transducers are installed by the Verifying Party for the purposes of hydrodynamic measurement of the yield of a specific test.

16. The term 'standard configuration" means either the standard vertical configuration or the standard horizontal configuration of a test described in paragraph 2 or 3 of Section V of this Protocol.

17. The term "non-standard configuration" means a configuration of a test different from that described in paragraph 2 or 3 of Section V of this Protocol.

18. The term "hydrodynamic measurement zone" means a region, the dimensions of which are specified in paragraph 1 of Section V of this Protocol, within which hydrodynamic yield measurements are carried out.

19. The term "reference test" means a test, identified by the Testing Party as a reference test, that meets the requirements of paragraph 8 of Section V of this Protocol.

20. The term "emplacement point" means the point in the emplacement hole that coincides with the center point of an emplaced explosive canister.

21. The term "choke section" means a barrier designed to restrict the flow of energy from an explosive canister.

22. The term "area of a pipe" or "area of a cableway" means the area of the external cross section of that pipe or cableway measured in a plane perpendicular to the axis of that pipe or cableway at the point within the zone specified in paragraph 2(c), 3(e), or 3(f) of Section V of this Protocol where its cross section is largest.

23. The term "sensing elements and cables" means switches, cables, and cable segments that provide direct measurement of the position of a shock front as a function of time, and are installed in a satellite hole by the Verifying Party for the purposes of use of the hydrodynamic yield measurement method.

24. The term 'transducer" means a device that converts physical properties of a shock wave, such as stress and particle velocity, into a recordable signal, and is installed in a satellite hole by the Verifying Party, with associated power supplies, for the purposes of use of the hydrodynamic yield measurement method, with respect to explosions having a planned yield exceeding 50 kilotons and characteristics differing from those set forth in paragraph 2 or 3 of Section V of this Protocol.

25. The term "core sample" means an intact cylindrical sample of geologic material having dimensions no less than two centimeters in diameter and two centimeters in length.

26. The term "rock fragment" means a sample of geologic material having an irregular shape and a volume no less than 1 0 cubic centimeters.

27. The term "geodetic measurements" means the determination of the geometric metric position of points within tunnels or cavities.

28. The term "Designated Seismic Station" means any one of the seismic stations designated by each Party, in accordance with Section VI of this Protocol, at which activities related to verification are carried out in accordance with this Protocol.

29. The term "Bilateral Consultative Commission" means the Commission established in accordance with Section XI of this Protocol.

30. The term "Coordinating Group" means a working group of the Bilateral Consultative Commission that is established for each test with respect to which activities related to verification are carried out.

31. The term "coordinated schedule" means the schedule, including the specific times and durations for carrying out activities related to verification for a specific test, established in the Coordinating Group as specified in paragraph 12 of Section XI of this Protocol.

32. The term "Nuclear Risk Reduction Centers" means the Centers located in Washington, D.C., and Moscow, established in accordance with the Agreement Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Establishment of Nuclear Risk Reduction Centers of September 15, 1987.

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