Reaffirming the statement of the Secretary of State of the United States and the Foreign Minister of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics of December 9, 1987,
Proceeding from the agreement to conduct a joint Verification Experiment, hereinafter referred to as JVE, for the purpose of the elaboration of effective verification measures for the Treaty Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Limitation of Underground Nuclear Weapon Tests, hereinafter referred to as the 1974 Treaty on the Limitation of Underground Nuclear Weapon Tests,
Taking into account the agreements reached by the U. S. and Soviet delegations at the negotiations in Geneva on specific JVE technical procedures and organizational plans in full conformity with the December 9, 1987, ministerial statement,
Have agreed as follows:
1. For purposes of the JVE, there shall be two nuclear explosions, one at the U.S. Nevada Test Site and one at the USSR Semipalatinsk Test Site, each hereinafter being referred to as a JVE explosion.
2. The planned yield of the JVE explosion at each test site shall be not less than 100 kilotons and shall approach 150 kilotons.
3. Each Party shall have the opportunity to measure, on the basis of reciprocity, the yield of the JVE explosion conducted at the other Party's test site using teleseismic methods and, at the other's test site, using hydrodynamic yield measurement methods.
4. Each Party shall also perform teleseismic measurements with its national seismic station network for both JVE explosions. To assist in teleseismic measurement, the Parties shall exchange data on five nuclear explosions conducted after January 1, 1978 but before January 1, 1988 to include yield, date and time, geographic coordinates, depth of burial, and associated geological and geophysical data. For each of these historical explosions, the Parties shall exchange teleseismic recordings taken at five designated stations on each side including station corrections and the best network seismic magnitude.
5. Each Party shall perform hydrodynamic yield measurements within the satellite hole provided for that purpose of the JVE explosions at both Parties' test sites using the methods it has identified in this Agreement.
6. As a yield standard, the experiment will include yield measurement within the emplacement hole of the JVE explosions at both Parties' test sites using the hydrodynamic methods each Party has identified in this Agreement. Each Party shall report to the other Party the yield values of each of the JVE explosions that are derived by each Party on the basis of hydrodynamic yield measurements undertaken within the satellite hole and within the emplacement hole. Each Party shall undertake for the purpose of the JVE to ensure at its test site a test configuration that will allow each Party to obtain an accurate yield standard of the JVE explosion. The use of hydrodynamic yield measurement methods within the emplacement hole by the visiting Party is being undertaken only in the JVE, and such measurement methods within the emplacement hole shall not be proposed by either Party for verification of the 1974 Treaty on the Limitation of Underground Nuclear Weapon Tests.
7. In the course of the JVE, each Party shall carry out teleseismic measurements of both JVE explosions at its five seismic stations for which historical data were exchanged. The Parties shall exchange the seismic data obtained in the JVE in corresponding detail to that exchanged for the historical explosions.
8. The JVE will provide information on the basis of which each Party can demonstrate the effectiveness of its hydrodynamic yield measurement methods at the test site of the other Party. Because the JVE is not designed to produce statistically significant results, it cannot by itself establish statistical proof of the accuracy of any particular yield measurement method.
9. The JVE conducted at both test sites will provide sufficient information to resolve all concerns, except those of a statistical nature, that have been identified by either Party regarding methods proposed by the other Party for verification of the 1974 Treaty on the Limitation of Underground Nuclear Weapon Tests by providing an example of the effectiveness of the verification methods used in the JVE and by demonstrating their practicability and non-intrusiveness.
10. Specific design procedures of the JVE configuration within the emplacement hole that may have been necessary to accommodate technical objectives of the JVE shall not provide a basis for objections by either Party regarding the use of hydrodynamic yield measurements within the satellite hole for future nuclear tests. Such design procedures of the JVE configuration shall not establish a precedent for requiring similar design procedures in the two Parties' future tests as a condition for agreement on measures permitting effective verification of the 1974 Treaty on the Limitation of Underground Nuclear Weapon Tests.
11. The JVE will assist the Parties in: finalizing operational procedures for the conduct of hydrodynamic yield measurements within the satellite hole and teleseismic yield measurements for verification of future nuclear tests; establishing procedures for gathering the geological and geophysical data that is to be exchanged in accordance with any future yield measurement method proposed by either Party; determining procedures for exchange of data by the Parties on shock-wave properties of rock; comparing procedures to be used by the Parties for analyzing results of either hydrodynamic or teleseismic yield measurement methods proposed by either Party; and considering improved measures for reducing any intrusiveness associated with the verification methods proposed by each Party.
12. The Parties will use their best efforts to conduct the JVE explosions in accordance with the schedule specified in the Annex.
13. The exchange of the data obtained in the preparation for and conduct of the JVE and of the results of the analysis by each Party will be done in accordance with the schedule specified in the Annex with a view toward agreement on measures providing for effective verification of the 1974 Treaty on the Limitation of Underground Nuclear Weapon Tests.
14. Upon request by either Party, the Parties shall meet promptly to discuss any question or concern that may arise concerning the provisions of this Agreement.
15. Each Party shall treat with due respect the personnel of the other Party in its territory in connection with the preparatory work for, and execution of, the JVE and shall take all appropriate steps to prevent any attack on the person, freedom and dignity of such personnel.
16. To ensure the effective implementation of the foregoing provisions, the Parties have reached the agreements set forth in the Annex, which form an integral part of this Agreement.
This Agreement, including the Annex hereto, shall enter into force upon signature.
DONE at Moscow on May 31, 1988, in two copies, each in the English and Russian languages, both texts being equally authentic.
FOR THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
George P. Shultz
FOR THE UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS