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As part of an effort to increase exports, South Africa begins uranium enrichment projects.

The Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, Including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies is signed in Washington, Moscow, and London. The treaty establishes outer space as the province of all mankind and stipulates that "Parties to the Treaty undertake not to place in orbit around the Earth any objects carrying nuclear weapons or any other kinds of weapons of mass destruction, install such weapons on celestial bodies, or station such weapons in outer space in any other manner."

The Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America, or Treaty of Tlatelolco, is signed at Mexico City. Parties agree not to manufacture, test, acquire nuclear weapons, or accept nuclear weapons deployed on their territory by others. The Treaty establishes the Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America (OPANAL). OPANAL can conduct special investigations at the request of a signatory that has reason to believe that a party is violating the Treaty--a function unavailable under the International Atomic Energy Agency system. Protocol I of the Treaty requires nuclear weapon states, with territories in the region, to respect that the Treaty and Protocol II require them not to threaten to use nuclear weapons against contracting parties.

France moves its nuclear testing from the Sahara Desert to its colonies in the Pacific Ocean, conducting its first test at the Moruroa Atoll.

China conducts its first thermonuclear weapon test.

Failure of a sodium cooling system causes a partial core meltdown at the Enrico Fermi demonstration breeder reactor, thirty miles from Detroit.

The Outer Space Treaty enters into force.

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