This year, The United States undertakes uranium ore production in France to produce reactor fuel for South Africa’s Safari-1 reactor.
A pilot uranium enrichment plan is also started in South Africa called the Y-Plant.
Congress divides the functions of the Atomic Energy Commission between two newly formed agencies: the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), responsible for advanced reactor development, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), an independent panel appointed by the President to regulate the nuclear energy industry.
Secretary of Defense James Schlesinger announces the doctrine of limited strategic strike options, in which a wide range of deterrence options would be available before massive retaliation.
India conducts an underground nuclear test at Pokharan in the Rajasthen desert, codenamed the "Smiling Buddha." The government claims it is a peaceful test, but it is actually part of an accelerated weapons program.The Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) is founded after India’s first “peaceful nuclear explosion” conducted on May 18, 1974. NSG establishes guidelines to regulate the transfer of sensitive nuclear material.
The Shah of Iran reveals intention to develop nuclear weapons. In response to a question regarding whether Iran would one day possess a nuclear weapon, the Shah is quoted as saying "certainly, and sooner than is believed."
The Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT) is signed in Moscow. The Treaty limits nuclear test explosion to under 150 kilotons (over ten times the yield of the Hiroshima bomb).The United States and the Soviet Union agree to the Protocol of the Anti-Ballistic Missile Agreement, which limits ABM deployment to a single area.
A.Q. Khan writes a letter to the Prime Minister of Pakistan offering his services and expertise in constructing a nuclear weapon.
A simulated missile attack, accidentally fed into the American early warning system, fools operators. During the six minutes it takes to discover that the attack is not authentic, fighters from bases in the United States and Canada take off, and missile and submarine installations worldwide are placed on alert.
November 23 - 24
President Gerald Ford and General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev sign the Vladivostok Accord, which establishes a framework for future Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT II) between the United States and the Soviet Union on controlling nuclear weapons. The key feature is a ceiling of 2,400 total offensive strategic missiles, and a further sub-ceiling of 1,320 launchers for MIRVed warheads.